Biofortified orange maize is as efficacious as a vitamin A supplement in Zambian children even in the presence of high liver reserves of vitamin A: A community-based, randomized placebo-controlled trial
Gannon B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Kaliwile C.,National Food and Nutrition Commission of Zambia |
Arscott S.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Arscott S.A.,Standard Process Inc. |
And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Background: Biofortification is a strategy to relieve vitamin A (VA) deficiency. Biofortified maize contains enhanced provitamin A concentrations and has been bioefficacious in animal and small human studies.Objective: The study sought to determine changes in total body reserves (TBRs) of vitamin Awith consumption of biofortified maize.Design: A randomized, placebo-controlled biofortified maize efficacy trial was conducted in 140 rural Zambian children. The paired 13C-retinol isotope dilution test, a sensitive biomarker for VA status, was used to measure TBRs before and after a 90-d intervention. Treatments were white maize with placebo oil (VA2), orange maize with placebo (orange), and white maize with VA in oil [400 mg retinol activity equivalents (RAEs) in 214 mL daily] (VA+).Results: In total, 133 children completed the trial and were analyzed for TBRs (n = 44 or 45/group). Change in TBR residuals were not normally distributed (P , 0.0001); median changes (95% CI) were as follows: VA2, 13 (219, 44) mmol; orange, 84 (21, 146) mmol; and VA+, 98 (24, 171) mmol. Nonparametric analysis showed no statistical difference between VA+ and orange (P = 0.34); both were higher than VA2 (P = 0.0034). Median (95% CI) calculated liver reserves at baseline were 1.04 (0.97, 1.12) mmol/g liver, with 59% .1 mmol/g, the subtoxicity cutoff; none were ,0.1 mmol/g, the deficiency cutoff. The calculated bioconversion factor was 10.4 mg b-carotene equivalents/1 mg retinol by using the middle 3 quintiles of change in TBRs from each group. Serum retinol did not change in response to intervention (P = 0.16) but was reduced with elevated C-reactive protein (P = 0.0029) and a-1-acid glycoprotein (P = 0.0023) at baseline.Conclusions: b-Carotene from maize was efficacious when consumed as a staple food in this population and could avoid the potential for hypervitaminosis A that was observed with the use of preformed VA from supplementation and fortification. Use of more sensitive methods other than serum retinol alone, such as isotope dilution, is required to accurately assess VA status, evaluate interventions, and investigate the interaction of VA status and infection. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01814891. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source
Bresnahan K.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Chileshe J.,Tropical Diseases Research Center |
Arscott S.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Arscott S.,Standard Process Inc. |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition
The acute phase response (APR) to infection can alter blood-based indicators of micronutrient status. Data from a 3-mo randomized, controlled feeding trial in rural Zambian children (n = 181, aged 3-5 y) were used to determine the impact of the APR on indicators of vitamin A and iron status using baseline and final blood samples. Concentrations of acute phase proteins were categorized as raised C-reactive protein (CRP; <5 and <10 mg/L) only, both raised CRP and a1-acid glycoprotein (AGP; <1.2 g/L), raised AGP only, and neither CRP nor AGP raised to identify the respective stages of infection: incubation, early convalescence, convalescence, and healthy state. Data were insufficient to examine the incubation stage of infection. A CRP concentration of <5 mg/L was an effective elevation cutoff point in this population to show impact on micronutrient markers. Time did not affect hemoglobin, serum ferritin, or serum retinol concentrations (P < 0.05). During early convalescence, hemoglobin decreased (14-16%; P ≤ 0.05), serum ferritin increased (279-356%; P ≤ 0.05), and serum retinol decreased (20-30%; P ≤ 0.05). Serum retinol concentrations did not change during convalescence; however, hemoglobin remained depressed (4-9%) and serum ferritin was elevated (67-132%) (both P ≤ 0.05). Modified relative dose response values were unaffected by the APR (P < 0.05) but increased between time points (16%; P ≤ 0.05), indicating a decrease in liver vitamin A reserves on the background of a semiannual vitamin A supplementation program. The observed prevalence of anemia and vitamin A deficiency assessed by serum retinol concentration was higher during the APR (P ≤ 0.05). It is important to consider the impact of infection on dietary interventions and to adjust for acute phase proteins when assessing iron status or vitamin A status by serum retinol concentration alone in children. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source
Metzger B.T.,Standard Process Inc.
ACS Symposium Series
Carrots are an important vegetable of the American diet and contain numerous bioactive phytoalexins. Polyacetylenes are bitter tasting bisacetylenic oxylipins in the family of plants known as Umbelliferae or Apiaceae. Carrots contain three predominate polyacetylenes which include falcarinol, falcarindiol, and falcarindiol 3-acetate. The concentration of polyacetylenes in colored carrots varies by as much as seven fold and may be dependent upon growing conditions, root tissue anatomy, year harvested, and storage and processing conditions. Polyacetylenes have traditionally been extracted with ethyl acetate or dichloromethane, or more recently by supercritical fluid extraction. Carrot polyacetylenes possess allelopathic activity which may explain the historical health benefits of carrots since studies investigating ß-carotene doesn't seem to adequately explain the reduced risk of certain types of cancer. Polyacetylenes are cytotoxic to certain fungi, microorganisms, and protective against various cancer cells in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Polyacetylenes possess bioactive properties which include the inhibition of lipid transport enzymes, induction of liver phase II detoxification enzymes, and anti-inflammatory activity. Carrots should be included in the top superfoods list due to their high dietary prevalence, wide variety of potent bioactive secondary metabolites, and increasing level of scientific support for human health. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source
Standard Process Inc. | Date: 2015-10-14
Standard Process Inc. | Date: 2015-10-14
Power-operated flour mills. Unprocessed grain.