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Palmyra, WI, United States

Lewis J.E.,University of Miami | Melillo A.B.,University of Miami | Tiozzo E.,University of Miami | Chen L.,University of Miami | And 8 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Declining cognitive function is relatively common and increasingly prevalent. Studies have shown that different nutrients (e.g., Ginkgo biloba and vitamin E) appear to be effective at improving memory and concentration, while less is known about their effect on immunity. Methods: This study investigated the effect of Ginkgo Synergy® plus Choline (n = 33) and OPC Synergy® plus Catalyn® (n = 31) versus placebo (n = 33) in a 6-month, randomized, double-blind trial on cognitive and immune functioning among English-speaking, non-smoking, healthy older adults. The Stroop Color and Word Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Controlled Oral Word Association, Hopkins Verbal Learning, Mini-Mental State Exam, and Digit Symbol were administered at baseline and 3 and 6 months follow-up to assess cognitive functioning. Cytokines and growth factors were measured at baseline and 6 months to assess inflammation and immune functioning. Data were analyzed with linear mixed modeling. Results: No serious adverse events were noted in this study. According to time on the Trail Making Test-B, the Ginkgo Synergy® plus Choline arm showed improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up (mean difference = 24.2; SE = 6.4; 95% CI: 8.6, 39.7; p = 0.01). On the Controlled Oral Word Association Trial-S, the scores significantly increased for the Ginkgo Synergy® plus Choline arm from baseline to 6 months follow-up (mean difference = 2.1; SE = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.9; p < 0.05) and for the OPC Synergy® plus Catalyn® arm from baseline to 3 months follow-up (mean difference = 2.1; SE = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.2, 4.0; p < 0.05). Epidermal growth factor significantly decreased from baseline to 6 months follow-up for the Ginkgo Synergy® plus Choline arm (mean difference = 120.7; SE = 28.4; 95% CI: 62.6, 178.8; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our study showed isolated and modest effects of a Ginkgo biloba plus choline-based formula on cognitive and immune functioning among healthy older adults with no history of significant cognitive deficits. Our trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (ID: NCT01672359). This study was supported by a grant from Standard Process, Inc. © 2014 Lewis et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Robbins M.G.,Standard Process | Hauder J.,German Research Center for Food Chemistry | Somoza V.,University of Vienna | Eshelman B.D.,University of Wisconsin - Whitewater | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

In cruciferous vegetables, myrosinase metabolizes the relatively inactive glucosinolates into isothiocyanates and other products that have the ability to increase detoxification enzyme expression. Thus, maintaining myrosinase activity during food preparation may be critical to receiving the maximum benefit of consumption of Brussels sprouts or other cruciferous vegetables. To test the importance of maintaining myrosinase activity for maximizing bioactivity, experimental diets containing 20% unblanched (active myrosinase) or 20% blanched (inactivated myrosinase) freeze-dried Brussels sprouts and a nutrient-matched control diet were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for their ability to induce detoxification enzymes. Treatment of immortalized HepG2 human hepatoma cells with the unblanched Brussels sprout diet caused a greater increase quinone activity compared to the blanched Brussels sprout diet. C3H/HeJ mice fed the unblanched Brussels sprout diets for 2 wk had significantly higher plasma sulforaphane concentrations. Liver expression of CYP1A1 and epoxide hydrolase, measured using real-time PCR, was correlated with the plasma concentration of sulforaphane. In the lung, expression of epoxide hydrolase, thioredoxin reductase, UDP glucuronosyltransferase, quinone reductase, heme oxygenase, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 were also correlated with the plasma concentration of sulforaphane. Together these data demonstrate that, as predicted by the in vitro experiment, in vivo exposure to Brussels sprouts with active myrosinase resulted in greater induction of both phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes in the liver and the lungs that correlated with plasma sulforaphane concentrations. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

Hanlon P.R.,Standard Process | Barnes D.M.,Standard Process
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2011

Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) are members of the cruciferous vegetable family that contain many classes of biologically active phytochemicals. This study determined the phytochemical composition of the sprouts and mature taproots of 8 radish varieties. Radish sprouts contained significantly greater concentrations of glucosinolates (3.8-fold) and isothiocyanates (8.2-fold) than the mature radish taproot and also contained significantly greater concentrations of phenolics (on average 6.9-fold). The anthocyanin concentrations of the mature radish taproot were significantly greater than in the sprouts of red, pink, and purple varieties. The primary anthocyanidins present in the red and pink radish varieties were pelargonidin and delphinidin, while the primary anthocyanidin in the purple radish variety was cyanidin. Radish sprouts were between 9- and 59-fold more potent than the corresponding mature taproot at activating the antioxidant response element (ARE) in a stably transfected hepatoma cell line. The ARE activity of the radish sprouts and mature taproots was significantly correlated with the total isothiocyanate concentration of the radishes. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists ®. Source

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