Düsseldorf, Germany
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Fandrich R.,Stahlinstitut VDEh | Jung H.-P.,Deutsche Edelstahlwerke GmbH
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2010

Since its beginnings in the second half of the 19th century ingot casting technology has undergone a dramatic evolution. After continuous casting was introduced in the 1960s, ingot casting production has concentrated increasingly on large-dimension and niche products, which either cannot be coped with by continuous casting or are needed only in very small quantities. Downhill casting was gradually replaced by uphill casting. Refractory materials and casting fluxes have been substantially sophisticated. The quality and cleanliness of ingots must keep pace wiith the constantly growing requirements. Here modern special remelting processes are of decisive importance, as they have the potential to further improve the cleanliness of cast ingots. The smart combination of the various processes enables steel grades to be produced which, also in the furture, will make ingot casting the only choice in many applications.


Fandrich R.,Stahlinstitut VDEh | Kleimt B.,Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH | Liebig H.,ThyssenKrupp | Pieper T.,Deutsche Edelstahlwerke GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2011

Since the 1950s, a huge consolidation has taken place within the European steel industry. Today, under increasing efficiency and flexibility of the steel plants also in mass production, more and more sophisticated steel grades are requested. The product portfolio of the plants, which in the end means the market, decides on the aggregates needed for secondary treatment and on the layout of the steel works. This overview outlines the specific characteristics of modern secondary metallurgy for heating, vacuum degassing, efficient vacuum production and measures to ensure steel cleanness and castability. Furthermore it sketches present trends in application and development.


Mauk P.J.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Overhagen C.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Stellmacher U.,Stahlinstitut VDEh
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2010

During the last few years the development focus in bar and wire rod production has been definitely the attainment of the desired material properties directly from rolling heat and the possibility of further processing the material without preliminary heat treatment. In combination with free size rolling, this has made production highly flexible. The introduction of near-net-shape beam-blank casting has markedly changed processes in section rolling. The number of passes has been reduced, the rolling mill plants are smaller in size and the rolling process has become simpler, more cost-effective and less energy consuming. Also in section and rail production, objective temperature control and cooling of the rolled product, and in rail rolling additionally the possibility of inline hardening, have led to enhanced product quality.


Liszio P.,Geschaftsfuhrer KBS Kokereibetriebsgesellschaft Schwelgern | Lungen H.B.,Stahlinstitut VDEh | Nelles L.,Huttenwerke Krupp Mannesmann GmbH
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2012

The blast furnace/converter route will remain the dominant steelmaking process for a long time. Blast furnaces cannot be operated without coke for physical reasons. Five most modern coke oven plants are operated in Germany. The coke oven plant Schwelgern, which was commissioned in 2003, has the largest coke oven chambers in the world. This plant demonstrates the peak of development for the conventional coke oven system. Besides high-quality coke the conventional horizontal coke oven chambers supply high-energy gas for heating or for power production as well as by-products which are converted into useful products. In comparison the heat recovery oven system, which is not used in Europe, produces coke and steam only. For selection of coal used in the conventional coke oven system care has to be taken of avoiding too high a gas pressure during coking. Coke plant operators are today facing the challenge of a tighter coking coal market.


Lungen H.B.,Stahlinstitut VDEh | Peters M.,Direktionsbereich Roheisen | Schmole P.,ThyssenKrupp
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2010

The growing production of hot metal - in due relation to the demand - forms the basis of the world's increasing demand for steel. In this context the blast furnace process will remain the number one ore reduction process. In Germany hot metal and crude steel are produced on a competitive basis at several integrated steel works using blast furnaces and basic oxygen converters which are world leading in terms of plant technology and operation. Within the framework of research programs, the development of an oxygen blast furnace process is underway, which - in combination with a CO2 capture and storage (CCS) system - is expected to massively reduce CO2 emissions from hot metal making. Direct reduction processes produce solid direct reduced iron (DRI) from iron ore without the use of coke. DRI is mostly used as input material in electric steelmaking. The majority of the DRI is produced in gas-based processes, especially at locations where low-cost natural gas is available. The intention of coal-based smelting reduction processes is to produce liquid hot metal without or only with very small amounts of coke. Of the various technologies, the Corex and the Finex processes have so far been applied to industrial-scale production. Whereas the Corex process relies on the use of lumpy ore charge, Finex can be operated with fine ores. Both processes will require the CCS technology to achieve a substantial reduction in CO 2 emissions.


Bruckhaus R.,AG der Dillin ger Huttenwerke | Fandrich R.,Stahlinstitut VDEh
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2013

Since 2005 the Indian economy has been on a tear as it has been growing by over 8 % on average each year. The raw material situation in India and the unique production routes have resulted in remarkable progress in metallurgy, with special technological solutions. That begs the question of whether India will soon increase the production of crude steel as dramatically as China. As part of a study tour in March 2012, members of the Steel Institute VDEh's steelmak-ing committee travelled to several major steel plants in order to obtain first-hand insights into the technology that is currently in use in India. The study tour was kicked off with a seminar on metallurgy at Tata Steel and it included field trips to several major steel plants.


The long process routes involved in steelmaking, the enormous differentiation in steel grades and products, global competition, and a lack of junior professionals all make high demands on companies as a whole and on individual employees. Demographic change will aggravate this situation. One way of meeting these challenges is continuous training and education of personnel. The Stahl-Akademie of the German Steel Institute VDEh offers a platform for this. Its programme includes some 30 seminars and study courses on all aspects of the material steel.


The processes of direct reduction and smelting reduction of iron ores reduce the ores by avoiding coke metallurgy. The natural gas-based direct reduction processes have lower CO2 emissions in comparison to the coal-based and liquid hot metal producing processes "blast furnace" and "smelting reduction". Regarding energy consumption all three routes are of equal level. For an application of the routes that form an alternative to the blastfurnace in Europe the integration into an existing integrated iron and steel works is evaluated. A replacement of the blast furnace - converter route by gas-based direct reduction with a subsequent electric steelmaking with the target to reduce CO2 emissions does not seem to be an economic solution.


Bruckhaus R.,AG der Dillinger Huttenwerke | Fandrich R.,Stahlinstitut VDEh
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals | Year: 2013

Abstract: About 60 % of the crude steel in Europe is currently produced by the oxygen steelmaking process and 40 % by the electric steelmaking process. The product range is of decisive importance for the layout of the steelworks and the equipment for secondary metallurgical treatment. Regarding steelmaking worldwide, thin slabs are increasingly being produced in addition to conventional formats such as slabs, blooms, billets and beam blanks. In order to ensure long-term economic success, however, companies have continuously to develop sophisticated technologies for steel production. Challenges for the future remain in the production of high-purity steel grades, as well as the development of zero-error strategies with maximum productivity and flexibility. This paper summarizes current trends in the development of steelmaking processes. © 2013 Indian Institute of Metals.


Fandrich R.,Stahlinstitut VDEh | Harste K.,Ehemals Vorsitzender des Vorstands der Saarstahl AG
Stahl und Eisen | Year: 2012

In cooperation with Steel Institute VDEh's Committee on Metallurgical Fundamentals, the Chinese Society for Metals (CSM) organized the "3rd CSM-VDEh Metallurgical Seminar" on 17-18 October 2011 in Beijing, China. Along with reports on the progress of the Chinese steel industry and of the VDEh member works, the program comprised latest developments in metallurgy. 130 Chinese experts and 14 from the Committee on Metallurgical Fundamentals attended this top-class seminar. The results of the seminar and of the works visits that followed are summarized below.

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