Tsukuba, Japan
Tsukuba, Japan

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Burgos-Paz W.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Souza C.A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Souza C.A.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Castello A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 9 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2013

The phylogeography of the porcine X chromosome has not been studied despite the unique characteristics of this chromosome. Here, we genotyped 59 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 312 pigs from around the world, representing 39 domestic breeds and wild boars in 30 countries. Overall, widespread commercial breeds showed the highest heterozygosity values, followed by African and American populations. Structuring, as inferred from FST and analysis of molecular variance, was consistently larger in the non-pseudoautosomal (NPAR) than in the pseudoautosomal regions (PAR). Our results show that genetic relationships between populations can vary widely between the NPAR and the PAR, underscoring the fact that their genetic trajectories can be quite different. NPAR showed an increased commercial-like genetic component relative to the PAR, probably because human selection processes to obtain individuals with high productive parameters were mediated by introgressing boars rather than sows. © 2012 The Authors.


Taniguchi F.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Taniguchi F.,University of Tsukuba | Furukawa K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Ota-Metoku S.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 8 more authors.
Breeding Science | Year: 2012

A few linkage maps of tea have been constructed using pseudo-testcross theory based on dominant marker systems. However, dominant markers are not suitable as landmark markers across a wide range of materials. Therefore, we developed co-dominant SSR markers from genomic DNA and ESTs and constructed a reference map using these co-dominant markers as landmarks. A population of 54 F1 clones derived from reciprocal crosses between 'Sayamakaori' and 'Kana-Ck17' was used for the linkage analysis. Maps of both parents were constructed from the F1 population that was taken for BC1 population. The order of most of the dominant markers in the parental maps was consistent. We constructed a core map by merging the linkage data for markers that detected polymorphisms in both parents. The core map contains 15 linkage groups, which corresponds to the basic chromosome number of tea. The total length of the core map is 1218 cM. Here, we present the reference map as a central core map sandwiched between the parental maps for each linkage group; the combined maps contain 441 SSRs, 7 CAPS, 2 STS and 674 RAPDs. This newly constructed linkage map can be used as a basic reference linkage map of tea.


Mikawa S.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Sato S.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Sato S.,National Livestock Breeding Center | Nii M.,Livestock Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: The number of vertebrae in pigs varies and is associated with body size. Wild boars have 19 vertebrae, but European commercial breeds for pork production have 20 to 23 vertebrae. We previously identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for number of vertebrae on Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 1 and 7, and reported that an orphan nuclear receptor, NR6A1, was located at the QTL on SSC1. At the NR6A1 locus, wild boars and Asian local breed pigs had the wild-type allele and European commercial-breed pigs had an allele associated with increased numbers of vertebrae (number-increase allele).Results: Here, we performed a map-based study to define the other QTL, on SSC7, for which we detected genetic diversity in European commercial breeds. Haplotype analysis with microsatellite markers revealed a 41-kb conserved region within all the number-increase alleles in the present study. We also developed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 450-kb region around the QTL and used them for a linkage disequilibrium analysis and an association study in 199 independent animals. Three haplotype blocks were detected, and SNPs in the 41-kb region presented the highest associations with the number of vertebrae. This region encodes an uncharacterized hypothetical protein that is not a member of any other known gene family. Orthologs appear to exist not only in mammals but also birds and fish. This gene, which we have named vertnin (VRTN) is a candidate for the gene associated with variation in vertebral number. In pigs, the number-increase allele was expressed more abundantly than the wild-type allele in embryos. Among candidate polymorphisms, there is an insertion of a SINE element (PRE1) into the intron of the Q allele as well as the SNPs in the promoter region.Conclusions: Genetic diversity of VRTN is the suspected cause of the heterogeneity of the number of vertebrae in commercial-breed pigs, so the polymorphism information should be directly useful for assessing the genetic ability of individual animals. The number-increase allele of swine VRTN was suggested to add an additional thoracic segment to the animal. Functional analysis of VRTN may provide novel findings in the areas of developmental biology. © 2011 Mikawa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Yamamoto T.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | Terakami S.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | Moriya S.,Apple Inc | Hosaka F.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | And 5 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

We performed random shotgun sequencing to obtain genome sequences from Japanese pear 'Housui' (Pyrus pyrifolia) for use in developing molecular markers. Nearly 2.7 million single-read sequences were obtained, with an average read length of 374 bases. More than 990 Mb of nucleotide sequence were recovered, which is equivalent to twice the size of the Japanese pear genome. We designed 237 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with motifs of 4, 5, or 10-14 nucleotides based on more than 50,000 SSR sequences. Out of these 237 markers, 128 loci could be added to at least one of three genetic linkage maps: European pears (P. communis) 'Bartlett' and 'La France', and Japanese pear 'Housui'. 86 of the 144 tested expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSR markers from apple (Malus × domestica) were mapped in one or more of the pear cultivars. The new genetic linkage map of 'Bartlett' consisted of 485 loci from SSR and single-nucleotide polymorphism markers, covering 17 linkage groups with a total length of 965 cM. The linkage map of 'La France' contained 370 loci in 17 linkage groups, with a total length of 1160 cM, and that of 'Housui' contained 415 loci in 20 linkage groups, with a total length of 1177 cM. The information obtained from this study will help us develop genome-wide markers and perform marker-assisted selection in pear breeding programs.


Kim H.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | Kim H.,Plant Biotechnology Institute | Terakami S.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | Nishitani C.,National Institute of Fruit Tree Science | And 6 more authors.
Breeding Science | Year: 2012

We developed retrotransposon-based insertional polymorphism (RBIP) markers based on the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences of copia-like retrotransposon Ppcrt4 and flanking genome sequences, which were derived from 454 sequencing data from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) 'Hosui'. Out of 40 sequences including both LTR and flanking genome regions, we developed 22 RBIP markers and used them for DNA profiling of 80 pear cultivars: 64 Japanese, 10 Chinese (Pyrus ussuriensis) and 6 European (Pyrus communis). Three RBIP markers were enough to differentiate 'Hosui' from the other Japanese pear cultivars. The 22 RBIP markers could also distinguish 61 of the 64 Japanese pear cultivars. European pears showed almost no amplification of the 22 RBIP markers, which might suggest that retrotransposons had transposed during Asian pear evolution or reflect the genetic relationship between Asian and European pears. Sixteen of the RBIP markers could be positioned on a genetic linkage map of 'Hosui'. The RBIP loci were distributed in 10 linkage groups, and some loci were very closely located within the same linkage group. The information obtained will be applicable to developing cultivar-specific RBIP marker sets in plants.


She K.-C.,Tokyo University of Science | Kusano H.,Tokyo University of Science | Kusano H.,RIKEN | Koizumi K.,Tokyo University of Science | And 23 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2010

Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm accumulates a massive amount of storage starch and storage proteins during seed development. However, little is known about the regulatory system involved in the production of storage substances. The rice flo2 mutation resulted in reduced grain size and starch quality. Map-based cloning identified FLOURY ENDOSPERM2 (FLO2), a member of a novel gene family conserved in plants, as the gene responsible for the rice flo2 mutation. FLO2 harbors a tetratricopeptide repeat motif, considered to mediate a protein-protein interactions. FLO2 was abundantly expressed in developing seeds coincident with production of storage starch and protein, as well as in leaves, while abundant expression of its homologs was observed only in leaves. The flo2 mutation decreased expression of genes involved in production of storage starch and storage proteins in the endosperm. Differences between cultivars in their responsiveness of FLO2 expression during high-temperature stress indicated that FLO2 may be involved in heat tolerance during seed development. Over expression of FLO2 enlarged the size of grains significantly. These results suggest that FLO2 plays a pivotal regulatory role in rice grain size and starch quality by affecting storage substance accumulation in the endosperm. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists.


Tsubokura Y.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Tsubokura Y.,Snow Brand Seed Co. | Watanabe S.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Watanabe S.,Saga University | And 11 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2014

Background and AimsThe timing of flowering has a direct impact on successful seed production in plants. Flowering of soybean (Glycine max) is controlled by several E loci, and previous studies identified the genes responsible for the flowering loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. However, natural variation in these genes has not been fully elucidated. The aims of this study were the identification of new alleles, establishment of allele diagnoses, examination of allelic combinations for adaptability, and analysis of the integrated effect of these loci on flowering.MethodsThe sequences of these genes and their flanking regions were determined for 39 accessions by primer walking. Systematic discrimination among alleles was performed using DNA markers. Genotypes at the E1-E4 loci were determined for 63 accessions covering several ecological types using DNA markers and sequencing, and flowering times of these accessions at three sowing times were recorded.Key ResultsA new allele with an insertion of a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) at the promoter of the E1 locus (e1-re) was identified. Insertion and deletion of 36 bases in the eighth intron (E2-in and E2-dl) were observed at the E2 locus. Systematic discrimination among the alleles at the E1-E3 loci was achieved using PCR-based markers. Allelic combinations at the E1-E4 loci were found to be associated with ecological types, and about 62-66 % of variation of flowering time could be attributed to these loci.ConclusionsThe study advances understanding of the combined roles of the E1-E4 loci in flowering and geographic adaptation, and suggests the existence of unidentified genes for flowering in soybean, © 2013 © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.


Matsumoto T.,STAFF Institute | Okumura N.,STAFF Institute | Uenishi H.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Hayashi T.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2012

We have collected more than 190000 porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries and identified more than 2800 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this study, we tentatively chose 222 SNPs observed in assembled ESTs to study pigs of different breeds; 104 were selected by comparing the cDNA sequences of a Meishan pig and samples of three-way cross pigs (Landrace, Large White, and Duroc: LWD), and 118 were selected from LWD samples. To evaluate the genetic variation between the chosen SNPs from pig breeds, we determined the genotypes for 192 pig samples (11 pig groups) from our DNA reference panel with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of the 222 reference SNPs, 186 were successfully genotyped. A neighbor-joining tree showed that the pig groups were classified into two large clusters, namely, Euro-American and East Asian pig populations. F-statistics and the analysis of molecular variance of Euro-American pig groups revealed that approximately 25% of the genetic variations occurred because of intergroup differences. As the F IS values were less than the F ST values , the clustering, based on the Bayesian inference, implied that there was strong genetic differentiation among pig groups and less divergence within the groups in our samples. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


PubMed | STAFF Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2012

We have collected more than 190000 porcine expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries and identified more than 2800 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this study, we tentatively chose 222 SNPs observed in assembled ESTs to study pigs of different breeds; 104 were selected by comparing the cDNA sequences of a Meishan pig and samples of three-way cross pigs (Landrace, Large White, and Duroc: LWD), and 118 were selected from LWD samples. To evaluate the genetic variation between the chosen SNPs from pig breeds, we determined the genotypes for 192 pig samples (11 pig groups) from our DNA reference panel with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of the 222 reference SNPs, 186 were successfully genotyped. A neighbor-joining tree showed that the pig groups were classified into two large clusters, namely, Euro-American and East Asian pig populations. F-statistics and the analysis of molecular variance of Euro-American pig groups revealed that approximately 25% of the genetic variations occurred because of intergroup differences. As the F(IS) values were less than the F(ST) values(,) the clustering, based on the Bayesian inference, implied that there was strong genetic differentiation among pig groups and less divergence within the groups in our samples.


PubMed | STAFF Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal genetics | Year: 2012

The chicken major histocompatibility complex (MHC-B locus) has a strong association with resistance and susceptibility to numerous diseases. We have found a B haplotype designated WLA that associated with the regression of tumours caused by Rous sarcoma virus J strain (RSV-J). Haplotype WLA was identical to the regressive B6 haplotype when partial genotyping was performed (Poultry Science, 89, 2010, 651). We then constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from a WLA homozygote chicken to evaluate the structure of this regression haplotype and compared it to those of the B6 haplotype. Comparison between WLA and B6 above 59 kb within the 167 kb, including 14 genes from BG1 to BF2, revealed 75 SNPs and 14 indels. However, several genes were identical between WLA and B6, including the BF1 and BF2 genes, which encode a class I molecule previously suggested to be related to the regression phenotype. The BLB2 gene encoding the MHC class II beta chain showed the greatest diversity, with 19 non-synonymous SNPs. A comparison of WLA and B6 haplotpyes that are associated with tumour regression and RIRa and B24 haplotypes associated with tumour progression suggests that DMA1, DMA2, BRD2, TAPBP and BLB2 genes are not involved in the intensity of RSV J tumour regression.

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