Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe

Karlsruhe, Germany

Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe

Karlsruhe, Germany
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Wagner G.A.,University of Heidelberg | Maul L.C.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitute und Naturmuseen | Loscher M.,Max Reger Weg 3 | Schreiber H.D.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2011

The mandible of Homo heidelbergensis was found 1907 in the sand pit Grafenrain at Mauer in coarse fluvial sands 24 m below the surface, deposited in a former course of the Neckar River. These 'Mauer sands' are overlain by a series of glacial-climate loess deposits with intercalated interglacial palaeosols, which can be correlated with Quaternary climate history, thus indicating an early Middle Pleistocene age for H. heidelbergensis. The 'Mauer sands' are famous for their rather rich mammal fauna, which clearly indicates interglacial climate conditions. The faunal evidence - in particular the micromammals - place the 'Mauer sands' into MIS 15 or MIS 13 although most stratigraphic arguments favour correlation to MIS 15 and therefore to an age of ca 600 ka. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Elgin R.A.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe | Campos H.B.N.,Campina Grande
Historical Biology | Year: 2012

A new specimen of the Early Cretaceous azhdarchoid Tapejara wellnhoferi is described from the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation, NE Brazil, providing the first detailed account of the postcranial skeleton. Although limited in its preservation, the osteology is typical of other azhdarchoid pterosaurs from these deposits and represents a juvenile animal with a relatively small wing span of < 1.5 m. The ratios of the pedal elements are identical to those noted for larger, indeterminate azhdarchoids of the Nova Olinda Member of the Crato Formation, where the unguals of the pes are greatly enlarged relative to those of the ornithocheiroids that co-inhabited the Santana lagoon. The ratios of these elements suggest that, as part of a larger suite of characters, these animals were likely better adapted for life on the ground than their ornithocheiroid relatives. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Frey E.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe | Tischlinger H.,Co opted Scientist
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Associations of large vertebrates are exceedingly rare in the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Limestone of Bavaria, Southern Germany. However, there are five specimens of medium-sized pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus that lie adjacent to the rostrum of a large individual of the ganoid fish Aspidorhynchus. In one of these, a small leptolepidid fish is still sticking in the esophagus of the pterosaur and its stomach is full of fish debris. This suggests that the Rhamphorhynchus was seized during or immediately after a successful hunt. According to the fossil record, Rhamphorhynchus frequently were accidentally seized by large Aspidorhnychus. In some cases the fibrous tissue of the wing membrane got entangled with the rostral teeth such that the fish was unable to get rid of the pterosaur. Such encounters ended fatally for both. Intestinal contents of Aspidorhynchus-type fishes are known and mostly comprise fishes and in one single case a Homoeosaurus. Obviously Rhamphorhynchus did not belong to the prey spectrum of Aspidorhynchus. © 2012 Frey, Tischlinger.

Elgin R.A.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe | Hone D.W.E.,Queen Mary, University of London
Cretaceous Research | Year: 2013

The partial skeleton of an immature azhdarchoid pterosaur from the Santana Formation (Early Cretaceous) of NE Brazil is described, where breaks across several of the three dimensionally preserved postcranial elements have permitted the thickness of the cortex to be accurately measured. Air-space proportions (ASP) are shown to be comparable to those observed in sauropod dinosaurs. The pterosaurian pneumatic system, prevalent throughout these animals, is shown to be well developed in even non-adult animals and is inferred to have penetrated into even the smallest of bones. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Hauck M.,University of Gottingen | Wirth V.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe
Lichenologist | Year: 2010

Based on findings in vascular plants showing that the capacity to provide enough carbon skeletons for rapid ammonium assimilation into amino acids is a prerequisite for tolerance to eutrophication, we tested the hypothesis that lichens from shady habitats are particularly sensitive to nitrogen pollution. We tested this hypothesis using published ecological indicator values (estimates of eutrophication tolerance and light preferences on an ordinal scale) for more than 500 central European lichen species. Our results show that shade-adapted lichens are indeed at the same time intolerant to eutrophication. However, not all eutrophication-sensitive lichens inhabit shady environments, suggesting the existence of several independent mechanisms causing intolerance of high nitrogen levels in lichens. The correlation of shade adaptation with nitrogen intolerance is limited to epiphytic and saxicolous species, since terricolous lichens are out-competed by vascular plants in dense vegetation. Our results suggest that lichen communities of shady bark, wood and rock are particularly sensitive to eutrophication. © 2010 British Lichen Society.

Frey E.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe | Monninger S.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Year: 2010

Between 1991 and 2009 a total of 50 isolated crocodilian tooth crowns were collected from the Oligocene crater lake Enspel. These tooth crowns are basically conical, with some being channeled and others showing smooth carinae. Due to their insignificant morphology the crown can only be referred to as an Eusuchia indet. All teeth are lacking their roots and therefore are very likely to represent shed teeth. The height range of the Enspel tooth crowns falls within the height variation found for those from extant Eusuchia, such as Osteolaemus and Caiman, and likely come from eusuchans with a body length of about 2 m. The presence of shed teeth proves that eusuchian Crocodilia lived in the Oligocene Lake Enspel. The taphonomy of the Enspel crocodilian tooth crowns contrasts with that of the early Freshwater Molasse locality Langenau near the City of Ulm, where most of the teeth still have their root and thus fell out post mortem, and with that for the Eocene Lake Messel, where isolated crocodilian teeth occur rarer than fully articulated ones of fragmentary skeletons. © 2009 Senckenberg, Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer.

Riedel A.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe
Insect Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2010

A new tribe of Nemonychidae is proposed based on inclusions in Baltic amber: Kuschelomacerini trib.n., for Kuschelomacer kerneggeri gen. & sp.n. It can be attributed to the subfamily Cimberidinae but lacks some of the derived characters of the two extant tribes of this subfamily. The excellent preservation allows providing the most detailed description of a fossil Nemonychid weevil to date. Presumably, the species developed on Pinaceae common in the amber forests. Thus, the association of extant Cimberidinae with Pinaceae dates back at least until the Eocene. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010.

Kuhn C.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe | Frey E.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Year: 2012

Utilisation of the limbs and the kind of locomotion on land and in water differ fundamentally between pinniped families, especially between Phocinae and Otariidae. On land, members of the latter group are, as is the case in all terrestrial mammals, able to support their bodies with their limbs, in contrast to the Phocinae. In water, Phocinae produce thrust by a lateral undulation of their hind fins whereas Otariidae perform underwater flight with their forefins. Here, we discuss and compare the locomotion styles and allied anatomical features of these two groups of pinniped Carnivora. Comparative models are presented for the evolution of swimming styles. According to these models, the specific aquatic locomotion styles of Phocinae and Otariidae, respectively, evolved at different stages of aquaticism independently from each other and thus cannot stem from an immediate common ancestor. This strongly suggests a diphyly of Otariidae and Phocinae contradicting both genetic data and recent phylogenetic analyses. © Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer 2012.

The complete type series of the White-striped Forest Wallaby Dorcopsis hageni Heller, 1897 comprising the skin of a female as well as skin and skull of a male specimen has been rediscovered in the vertebrate collections of the State Natural History Museum Karlsruhe (SMNK). The skin of the male has been transformed into a mounted specimen at the turn of the 20th century, with has remained broadly unnoticed in the literature. The catalogue of the mammal collections of the SMNK as well as an original label indicates that Erima, not Stephansort, is the type locality of the species. The skull of the type series has been labelled "Dorcopsis dorsolineata Heller", but there is no evidence that this name has ever been published. © Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, 2016.

Elgin R.A.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe | Frey E.,Staatliches Museum fur Naturkunde Karlsruhe
Swiss Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2011

A new pterosaur, Microtuban altivolans gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Sannine Formation of northern Lebanon. The specimen is the first pterosaur from the Early Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous) locality of Hjoûla and is regarded as the most complete pterosaur fossil discovered from Africa. While postcranial characters indicate a possible relationship with members of the Thalassodromidae or Chaoyangopteridae, the specimen possesses an exceptionally short wing-finger phalanx 4, forming only 1.1% of the total length of the wing-finger. Its appearance along with an unnamed ornithocheiroid from the slightly younger locality of Hâqel suggests that a number of pterosaur taxa existed within the local area, perhaps living on exposed carbonate platforms. © 2011 Swiss Geological Society.

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