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Predotova M.,University of Kassel | Kretschmann R.,Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fur Umwelt und Landwirtschaft | Gebauer J.,University of Kassel | Buerkert A.,University of Kassel
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2011

Closed-chamber systems are commonly used to determine gaseous C and N emissions from agricultural soils. We investigated the effects of eight cuvette surfaces on two standard gas concentrations of NH3, N2O, CO2, and CH4 under laboratory conditions. Cuvette surface materials differentially affected gas adhesion or recovery as a function of the type and the concentration of the gases. Given the strong effects on results of gas measurements in closed-chamber systems, both the type and the concentration of the measured gases need to be considered in selecting cuvette surface materials. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Kessler K.,Dr. Dittrich and Partner Hydro Consult GmbH | Denner M.,Sachsisches Landesamt fur Umwelt | Dittrich I.,Dr. Dittrich and Partner Hydro Consult GmbH | Muller I.,Sachsisches Landesamt fur Umwelt | Wendel D.,Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fur Umwelt und Landwirtschaft
Telma | Year: 2014

Showing extensive deficiencies the situation of peatlands nowadays asks for transregional, data based and coordinated concepts. From 2008 to 2011 a concept on a Saxon information system on peatlands and organic wetlands (acronym: SIMON) was compiled by order of the Saxon State Office of Environment, Agriculture and Geology (LfULG). Gathering and merging available data on peatlands from geology, pedology, phytosociology and nature conservation planning was the first step of a GIS based implementation. Therefore, a broader meaning of the term "peatland" was used, including all organic soils showing even small layers of peat (independent from the kind of vegetation) on the one hand and land covered by a peatland specific vegetation being able to potentially build up a peat layer (independent from the soil type) on the other hand. As a result, a general survey was mapped to display the geographical extension of peatland compound areas in Saxony summing up in 46,800 ha which is 2.5 % of the Saxon state area. Only 5 ha are labelled as "active raised bogs", thus indicating how strongly peatlands are affected in Saxony today. Being widely damaged, the restoration of most peatlands is very challenging. Tools for a hydromorphological assessment and decision making were developed to help prioritizing among different peatlands. They are applied on peatlands in the mountain region as an example. These tools may contribute to focus on restoration and conservation activities on peatlands with a high rewetting potential. Furthermore, potential enhancements of SIMON are presented. Source


Buchl N.R.,TU Munich | Hutzler M.,TU Munich | Mietke-Hofmann H.,Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fur Umwelt und Landwirtschaft | Wenning M.,TU Munich | Scherer S.,TU Munich
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aims: To establish an identification system for probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains based on artificial neural network (ANN)-assisted Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to improve quality control of animal feed. Methods and Results: The ANN-based system for differentiating environmental from probiotic S. cerevisiae strains comprises five authorized feed additive strains plus environmental strains isolated from different habitats. A total of 108 isolates were used as reference strains to create the ANN. DHPLC analysis and -PCR were used as reference methods to type probiotic yeast isolates. The performance of the FTIR-ANN was tested in an internal validation using unknown spectra of each reference strain. This validation step yielded a classification rate of 99·1 %. For an external validation, a test data set comprising 965 spectra of 63 probiotic and environmental S. cerevisiae isolates unknown to the ANN was used, resulting in a classification rate of 98·2 %. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that probiotic S. cerevisiae strains in feed can be differentiated successfully from environmental isolates using both genotypic approaches and ANN-based FTIR spectroscopy. Significance and Impact of the Study: FTIR-based artificial neural network analysis provides a rapid and inexpensive technique for yeast identification both at the species and at the strain level in routine diagnostic laboratories, using a single sample preparation. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology. Source


Mietke H.,Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fur Umwelt und Landwirtschaft | Beer W.,Robert Koch Institute Wernigerode | Schleif J.,Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fur Umwelt und Landwirtschaft | Schabert G.,Biosynth AG | Reissbrodt R.,Robert Koch Institute Wernigerode
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Animal feed often contains probiotic Bacillus strains used as feed additives. Spores of the non-pathogenic B. cereus var. toyoi (product name Toyocerin®) are used. Distinguishing between toxic wild-type Bacillus cereus strains and this probiotic strain is essential for evaluating the quality and risk of feed. Bacillus cereus CIP 5832 (product name Paciflor®) was used as probiotic strain until 2001. The properties of the two probiotic strains are quite similar.Differentiating between probiotic strains and wild-type B. cereus strains is not easy. ß-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin and cefamandole exhibit an inhibition zone in the agar diffusion test of probiotic B. cereus strains which are not seen for wild-type strains. Therefore, performing the agar diffusion test first may make sense before FT-IR testing.When randomly checking these strains by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the probiotic B. cereus strains were separated from wild-type B. cereus/B. thuringiensis/B. mycoides/B. weihenstephanensis strains by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The discriminatory information was contained in the spectral windows 3000-2800cm-1 ("fatty acid region"), 1200-900cm-1 ("carbohydrate region") and 900-700cm-1 ("fingerprint region"). It is concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid quality control and risk analysis of animal feed containing probiotic B. cereus strains. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


From the 1960s to the beginning of the 1990s, the situation regarding acidic inputs gradually worsened in the Ore Mountains. Between 1980 and 1990, the average sulfur deposition with rainfall was 4 g S rrv-2 a -1 at the monitoring points Marienberg and Zinnwald. During frequent episodic events of severe air pollution, vegetation and soil were contaminated more than fourfold the mentioned average value. S-deposition of 1 g m -2 a-1 would be sufficient to exhaust the buffer capacity of waters in acid sensitive areas like the Ore Mountains. The cross media effects in the causal chain air-soil-water resulted in an alarming acidification of stagnant and flowing waters causing severe ecological damage. Specially in the last decade the drastic decline of atmospheric sulfur input to vegetation and soil along with systematic soil protection liming over two decades, resulted in remarkable recovery of aquatic biodiversity. In the formerly strong acidified mountain brook Große Pyra (West Saxony) the diversity of aquatic species has increased and so the number of organisms more than tripled during the last two decades. The aquatic environment is markedly less impacted and a qualitative change has begun to take effect. Long-term trends are shown for corresponding relevant chemical parameters which characterize the process of water acidification and affecting aquatic communities. Both alkalinity and pH-value indicate marked increase. Elevated aluminum concentrations associated with acidic spates have been recognized as important drivers for ecological change in acidified streams, resulting in the loss of species from those environments. Thus, the concentration of dissolved aluminum is highly relevant for the survival of water organisms. During the last two decades, dissolved aluminum in Große Pyra dropped dramatically from an extremely high annual mean concentration of 1.700 pg N to an annual mean value of ca. 500 μg l -1. Such a fast and sharp decline of dissolved aluminum in surface water cannot solely be attributed to decreasing atmospheric deposition but was largely the result of iterated soil-stabilizing forest liming. There is proof of a remarkable biological recovery that was slowly starting to take effect in the 1990s and has continued to increase in the last decade: Various sensitive macrozoobenthos species recolonized the former strongly acidified stream Große Pyra. Similar positive developments are also observed in several other streams in higher regions of the Ore Mountains. This case study is not focussing on botanic issues and concerns of nature conservation with regard to liming in terrestrial catchment areas. © DLV GmbH. Source

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