Ng K.W.,St. Vincents Institute
Clinical Interventions in Aging | Year: 2012
Cathepsin K is a key enzyme involved in the degradation of organic bone matrix by osteoclasts. Inhibition of bone resorption observed in human and animal models deficient for cathepsin K has identified this enzyme as a suitable target for intervention by small molecules with the potential to be used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of osteoporosis. Odanacatib (ODN) is a nonbasic selective cathepsin K inhibitor with good pharmacokinetic parameters such as minimal in vitro metabolism, long half-life, and oral bioavailability. In preclinical studies, ovariectomized monkeys and rabbits treated with ODN showed substantial inhibition of bone resorption markers along with increases in bone mineral density (BMD). Significant differences were observed in the effects of ODN treatment compared with those of other antiresorptive agents such as bisphosphonates and denosumab. ODN displayed compartment-specific effects on trabecular versus cortical bone formation, with treatment resulting in marked increases in periosteal bone formation and cortical thickness in ovariectomized monkeys whereas trabecular bone formation was reduced. Furthermore, osteoclasts remained viable. Phase I and II studies conducted in postmenopausal women showed ODN to be safe and well tolerated. After 5 years, women who received ODN 50 mg weekly continuously from year 1 (n = 13), showed BMD increases from baseline of 11.9% at the lumbar spine, 9.8% at the femoral neck, 10.9% at the hip trochanter, and 8.5% at the total hip. Additionally, these subjects maintained a low level of the urine bone resorption marker N-terminal telopeptide/creatinine (-67.4% from baseline) through 5 years of treatment, while levels of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase remained only slightly reduced relative to baseline (-15.3%). In women who were switched from ODN to placebo after 2 years, bone turnover markers were transiently increased and BMD gains reversed after 12 months off medication. Adverse experiences in the ODN-treated group were not significantly different from the placebo group. In conclusion, available data suggests that cathepsin K inhibition could be a promising intervention with which to treat osteoporosis. Ongoing studies are expected to provide information on the long-term efficacy in fracture reduction and safety of prolonged treatment with ODN. © 2012 Ng, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
Martin J.T.,St. Vincents Institute
World Journal of Orthopaedics | Year: 2013
After it was suggested 30 years ago that the osteoblast lineage controlled the formation of osteoclasts, methods were developed that established this to be the case, but the molecular controls were elusive. Over more than a decade much evidence was obtained for signaling mechanisms that regulated the production of a membrane - bound regulator of osteoclastogenesis, in the course of which intercellular communication in bone was revealed in its complexity. The discovery of regulation by tumor necrosis factor ligand and receptor families was made in the last few years of the twentieth century, leading since then to a new physiology of bone, and to exciting drug development. © 2013 Baishideng.
Martin T.J.,St. Vincents Institute
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010
Members of the ephrin and Eph family are local mediators of cell function through largely contact-dependent processes in development and in maturity. Production of ephrinB2 mRNA and protein are increased by PTH and PTHrP in osteoblasts. Both a synthetic peptide antagonist of ephrinB2/EphB4 receptor interaction and recombinant soluble extracellular domain of EphB4 sEphB4) which is an antagonist of both forward and reverse EphB4 signaling were able to inhibit mineralization and the expression of several osteoblast genes involved late in osteoblast differentiation. The findings are consistent with ephrinB2/EphB4 signaling within the osteoblast lineage having a paracrine role in osteoblast differentiation in addition to the proposed role of osteoclast-derived ephrinB2 in coupling of bone formation to resorption. This local regulation might contribute to control of osteoblast differentiation and bone formation at remodeling sites and perhaps also in modeling. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media LLC.
O'Neill H.M.,St. Vincents Institute
Diabetes and Metabolism Journal | Year: 2013
AMPK is an evolutionary conserved sensor of cellular energy status that is activated during exercise. Pharmacological activation of AMPK promotes glucose uptake, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and insulin sensitivity; processes that are reduced in obesity and contribute to the development of insulin resistance. AMPK deficient mouse models have been used to provide direct genetic evidence either supporting or refuting a role for AMPK in regulating these processes. Exercise promotes glucose uptake by an insulin dependent mechanism involving AMPK. Exercise is important for improving insulin sensitivity; however, it is not known if AMPK is required for these improvements. Understanding how these metabolic processes are regulated is important for the development of new strategies that target obesity-induced insulin resistance. This review will discuss the involvement of AMPK in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism (glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, and insulin sensitivity). © 2013 Korean Diabetes Association.
Walden H.,University of Dundee |
Deans A.J.,St. Vincents Institute |
Deans A.J.,University of Melbourne
Annual Review of Biophysics | Year: 2014
Mutations in any of at least sixteen FANC genes (FANCA-Q) cause Fanconi anemia, a disorder characterized by sensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents. The clinical features of cytopenia, developmental defects, and tumor predisposition are similar in each group, suggesting that the gene products participate in a common pathway. The Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway consists of an anchor complex that recognizes damage caused by interstrand crosslinks, a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that monoubiquitinates two substrates, and several downstream repair proteins including nucleases and homologous recombination enzymes. We review progress in the use of structural and biochemical approaches to understanding how each FANC protein functions in this pathway. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.