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Chan P.,Neurology Team | Brew B.J.,University of New South Wales | Brew B.J.,St Vincents Hospital Center for Applied Medical Research
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2014

The introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has significantly reduced the mortality secondary to opportunistic infections in HIV patients by restoring the immune system. In the central nervous system (CNS), there has also been benefit with a marked reduction of HIV associated dementia. However, the milder forms of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), namely asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment and mild neurocognitive disorder, remain prevalent in the cART era. In this article, we will discuss how cART interacts with HAND in terms of clinical characteristics and biomarkers. We will then review the outcomes of recent clinical studies focused on the CNS penetrating antiretroviral regimens and some novel therapeutic approaches. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Cysique L.A.,University of New South Wales | Cysique L.A.,Neuroscience Research Australia | Cysique L.A.,St Vincents Hospital Center for Applied Medical Research | Dermody N.,St Vincents Hospital Center for Applied Medical Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of NeuroVirology | Year: 2016

Research assessing whether major depressive disorders (MDD) impacts neurocognitive functions in HIV+ persons has yielded inconsistent results. However, none have considered the role of MDD remission, chronicity, and stability on treatment. Ninety-five HIV+ adults clinically stable on combined antiretroviral treatment completed a psychiatric interview, a depression scale, a neuropsychological, daily living, and cognitive complaints assessments at baseline and 18 months. Participants were screened for current (within 12 months of study entry) alcohol and/or substance use disorder. History of alcohol and/or substance abuse disorder prior to the 12 months entry screen and MDD treatments were recorded. Participants were grouped into two psychiatric nomenclatures: (1) lifetime: no MD episode (MDE), single MDE life-event treated and fully remitted, chronic MDD treated and stable, chronic MDD treated and unstable, and baseline untreated MDE; (2) recent: last 2 years MDE (yes or no). We found that lifetime and recent psychiatric history were more strongly associated with decreased in independence in daily living and cognitive complaints than with baseline neuropsychological performance. However, lack of full remission, instability on treatment in chronic MDD, and severity of symptoms in current MDE were factors in whether MDD impacted baseline neuropsychological performance. Depressive symptoms improved at follow-up in those with baseline moderate-severe symptoms, and MDD was not associated with neurocognitive change at 18 months. A history of alcohol and/or substance abuse disorder was significantly more frequent in those with treated and unstable chronic MDD but it was not associated with neuropsychological performance. MDD recurrence, chronicity profiles, and associated comorbidities are keys factors to understand any potential impact on neurocognitive abilities in HIV infection. More comprehensive consideration of these complex effects could serve at constructively updating the HAND diagnostic criteria. © 2015, Journal of NeuroVirology, Inc. Source


Palma C.A.,St Vincents Hospital Center for Applied Medical Research | Tonna E.J.,St Vincents Hospital Center for Applied Medical Research | Ma D.F.,St Vincents Hospital Center for Applied Medical Research | Ma D.F.,University of New South Wales | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2012

In the relatively short period of time since their discovery, microRNAs have been shown to control many important cellular functions such as cell differentiation, growth, proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, microRNAs have been demonstrated as key drivers of many malignancies and can function as either tumour suppressors or oncogenes. The haematopoietic system is not outside the realm of microRNA control with microRNAs controlling aspects of stem cell and progenitor self-renewal and differentiation, with many, if not all, haematological disorders associated with aberrant microRNA expression and function. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of microRNA control of haematopoiesis and detail the evidence for the contribution and clinical relevance of aberrant microRNA function to the characteristic block of differentiation in acute myeloid leukaemia. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Cysique L.A.,University of New South Wales | Cysique L.A.,Neuroscience Research Australia | Cysique L.A.,St Vincents Hospital Center for Applied Medical Research | Heaton R.K.,University of California at San Diego | And 12 more authors.
Journal of NeuroVirology | Year: 2014

The Australian HIV-infected (HIV+) population is largely comprised of high-functioning men who have sex with men (MSM). Like other English-speaking countries, Australia mostly relies on US neuropsychological normative standards to detect and determine the prevalence of neurological disorders. Whether the US neuropsychological (NP) normative standards are appropriate in Australian HIV+ MSM has not been established. Ninety virally suppressed HIV+ and 49 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men (respectively 86 and 85% self-reported MSM; mean age 54 and 56 years, mean premorbid verbal IQ estimate 110 and 111) undertook standard NP testing. The raw neuropsychological data were transformed using the following: (1) US standards as uncorrected scaled scores and demographically corrected T scores (US norms); and (2) z scores (without demographic corrections) derived from Australian comparison group scaled scores (local norms). To determine HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder prevalence, we used a standard definition of impairment based upon a battery-wide summary score: the global deficit score (GDS). Impairment classification (GDS≥0.5) based on the local norms was best at discriminating between the two groups (HIV- = 14.3% vs. HIV+ = 53.3%; p<0.0001). This definition was significantly associated with age. Impairment classification based on the US norms yielded much lower impairment rate regardless of the HIV status (HIV- = 4.1% vs. HIV+ = 14.7%; p = 0.05), but was associated with historical AIDS, and not age. Both types of summary scores were associated with reduced independence in activities of daily living (p≤0.03). Accurate neuropsychological classifications of high (or low) functioning individuals may need country-specific norms that correct for performance-based (e.g., reading) estimates of premorbid cognition in addition to the traditional demographic factors. © Journal of NeuroVirology, Inc. 2014. Source


Cysique L.A.,University of New South Wales | Cysique L.A.,Neuroscience Research Australia | Cysique L.A.,St Vincents Hospital Center for Applied Medical Research | Moffat K.,St.Vincents Hospital | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature aging have been hypothesized as new risk factors for HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in adults with virally-suppressed HIV infection. Moreover, their significance and relation to more classical HAND biomarkers remain unclear.Methods:92 HIV- infected (HIV+) adults stable on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 30 age-comparable HIV-negative (HIV-) subjects underwent 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of the frontal white matter (targeting HIV, normal aging or CVD-related neurochemical injury), caudate nucleus (targeting HIV neurochemical injury), and posterior cingulate cortex (targeting normal/pathological aging, CVD-related neurochemical changes). All also underwent standard neuropsychological (NP) testing. CVD risk scores were calculated. HIV disease biomarkers were collected and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neuroinflammation biomarkers were obtained in 38 HIV+ individuals.Results:Relative to HIV- individuals, HIV+ individuals presented mild MRS alterations: in the frontal white matter: lower N-Acetyl-Aspartate (NAA) (p<.04) and higher myo-inositol (mIo) (p<.04); in the caudate: lower NAA (p =. 01); and in the posterior cingulate cortex: higher mIo (p<.008- also significant when Holm-Sidak corrected) and higher Choline/NAA (p<.04). Regression models showed that an HIV*age interaction was associated with lower frontal white matter NAA. CVD risk factors were associated with lower posterior cingulate cortex and caudate NAA in both groups. Past acute CVD events in the HIV+ group were associated with increased mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex. HIV duration was associated with lower caudate NAA; greater CNS cART penetration was associated with lower mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex and the degree of immune recovery on cART was associated with higher NAA in the frontal white matter. CSF neopterin was associated with higher mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex and frontal white matter.Conclusions:In chronically HIV+ adults with long-term viral suppression, current CVD risk, past CVD and age are independent factors for neuronal injury and inflammation. This suggests a tripartite model of HIV, CVD and age likely driven by chronic inflammation. © 2013 Cysique et al. Source

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