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Richardson P.G.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Badros A.Z.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | Jagannath S.,St Vincents Comprehensive Cancer Center | Tarantolo S.,Oncology Hematology West | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2010

Tanespimycin (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, 17-AAG) disrupts heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a key molecular chaperone for signal transduction proteins critical to myeloma growth, survival and drug resistance. In previous studies, tanespimycin monotherapy was well tolerated and active in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Preclinical data have shown antitumour synergy between tanespimycin and bortezomib, with more pronounced intracellular accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins than either drug alone, an effect attributed to the synergistic suppression of chymotryptic activity in the 20S proteasome. HSP70 induction has been observed in all Phase 1 tanespimycin studies in which it has been measured, with several separate reports of HSP70 overexpression protecting against peripheral nerve injury. In this Phase 2, open-label multicentre study, we compared 1·3 mg/m 2 bortezomib + three doses of tanespimycin: 50, 175 and 340 mg/m 2 in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed and refractory MM and measured HSP70 expression and proteasome activity levels in plasma of treated patients. The study was closed prematurely for resource-based reasons, precluding dose comparison. Nonetheless, antitumour activity was observed, with promising response rates and promising severity of peripheral neuropathy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Bensinger W.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Maziarz R.T.,Oregon Health And Science University | Jagannath S.,St Vincents Comprehensive Cancer Center | Jagannath S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 8 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2012

In this open-label, multicentre, phase 1 study a fully human anti-CD40 antagonist monoclonal antibody, lucatumumab, was evaluated in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) based on dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and antimyeloma activity. Twenty-eight patients, enrolled using a standard '3 + 3' dose escalation, received one or two (n = 3) cycles of lucatumumab 1·0, 3·0, 4·5 or 6·0 mg/kg once weekly for 4 weeks. Common lucatumumab-related adverse events were reversible, mild-to-moderate infusion reactions. Severe adverse events were anaemia, chills, hypercalcaemia and pyrexia (7% each). DLTs included grade 4 thrombocytopenia, grade 3 increased alanine aminotransferase and grade 4 increased lipase (n = 1 each). The MTD was 4·5 mg/kg. At doses ≥3·0 mg/kg, sustained receptor occupancy (≥87%), observed throughout weekly infusions up to 5 weeks after the last infusion, correlated with an estimated half-life of 4-19 d. Twelve patients (43%) had stable disease, and one patient (4%) maintained a partial response for ≥8 months. These findings indicate that single-agent lucatumumab was well tolerated up to 4·5 mg/kg with modest clinical activity in relapsed/refractory MM, warranting further study as a combination therapy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Berger A.C.,Thomas Jefferson University | Winter K.,Statistical Center | Hoffman J.P.,Fox Chase Cancer Center | Regine W.F.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2012

Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 9704 was the largest randomized trial to use adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer. This report analyzes 5-year survival by serum level of tumor marker CA 19-9 of ≤90 vs >90 U/mL and compares results to the those of the CONKO-001 trial. Methods and Materials: CA 19-9 expression was analyzed as a dichotomized variable (≤90 vs >90 U/mL). Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify the impact of the CA 19-9 value on overall survival (OS). Actuarial estimates of OS were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Both univariate (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-4.3, P<.0001) and multivariate (HR = 3.1; 95% CI, 2.2-4.2, P<.0001) analyses demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in OS for CA 19-9 serum level of ≥90 U/mL. For patients in the gemcitabine (Gem) treatment arm with CA 19-9 <90 U/mL, median survival was 21 months. For patients with CA 19-9 ≥90 U/mL, this number dropped to 10 months. In patients with pancreatic head tumors in the Gem treatment arm with RT quality assurance per protocol and CA 19-9 of <90 U/mL, median survival and 5-year rate were 24 months and 34%. In comparison, the median survival and 5-year OS rate for patients in the Gem arm of the CONKO trial were 22 months and 21%. Conclusions: This analysis demonstrates that patients with postresection CA 19-9 values ≥90 U/mL had a significantly worse survival. Patients with pancreatic head tumors treated with Gem with CA 19-9 serum level of <90 U/mL and per protocol RT had favorable survival compared to that seen in the CONKO trial. CA 19-9 is a stratification factor for the current RTOG adjuvant pancreas trial (0848). © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Weber D.M.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Graef T.,Sharp Corporation | Hussein M.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | Sobecks R.M.,Cleveland Clinic | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia | Year: 2012

Background: Development of targeted therapies for MM has improved response rates and increased patient survival, but ultimately the disease becomes refractory and progresses. Vorinostat combined with bortezomib has demonstrated synergistic antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity in preclinical models of MM. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum tolerated dose for vorinostat with bortezomib in patients with advanced MM and to evaluate the clinical benefit of this new drug combination. Patients and Methods: Patients < 18 years old with relapsed and/or refractory MM were enrolled into escalating dose cohorts of vorinostat and bortezomib combination therapy. Thirty-four patients were enrolled and were evaluable for safety and efficacy analyses. Results: All patients reported adverse events, 89% of which were mild to moderate in severity. Thirteen patients experienced 29 serious adverse events, 12 (41%) of which were considered drug-related. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. Partial responses were observed in 9 (27%) patients. Minimal responses were observed in 2 additional patients (6%), and another 20 patients (59%) experienced disease stabilization. Conclusion: Vorinostat with bortezomib is generally well-tolerated and has clinical activity in patients with relapsed and/or refractory MM. Response rates were similar in patients previously exposed to bortezomib and patients who were naive to bortezomib therapy. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Kumar M.S.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Narla A.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Narla A.,Harvard University | Narla A.,Childrens Hospital Boston | And 20 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Large chromosomal deletions are among the most common molecular abnormalities in cancer, yet the identification of relevant genes has proven difficult. The 5q- syndrome, a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), is a chromosomal deletion syndrome characterized by anemia and thrombocytosis. Although we have previously shown that hemizygous loss of RPS14 recapitulates the failed erythroid differentiation seen in 5q-syndrome, it does not affect thrombocytosis. Here we show that a microRNA located in the common deletion region of 5q- syndrome, miR-145, affects megakaryocyte and erythroid differentiation. We find that miR-145 functions through repression of Fli-1, a megakaryocyte and erythroid regulatory transcription factor. Patients with del(5q) MDS have decreased expression of miR-145 and increased expression of Fli-1. Overexpression of miR-145 or inhibition of Fli-1 decreases the production of megakaryocytic cells relative to erythroid cells, whereas inhibition of miR-145 or overexpression of Fli-1 has a reciprocal effect. Moreover, combined loss of miR-145 and RPS14 cooperates to alter erythroid-megakaryocytic differentiation in a manner similar to the 5q- syndrome. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that coordinate deletion of a miRNAand a protein-coding gene contributes to the phenotype of a human malignancy, the 5q- syndrome. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.


PubMed | University of Washington, University of Houston, St Vincents Comprehensive Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: British journal of haematology | Year: 2016

While proteasome inhibition is a validated therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma (MM), inhibition of individual constitutive proteasome (c20S) and immunoproteasome (i20S) subunits has not been fully explored owing to a lack of effective tools. We utilized the novel proteasome constitutive/immunoproteasome subunit enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ProCISE) assay to quantify proteasome subunit occupancy in samples from five phase I/II and II trials before and after treatment with the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib. Following the first carfilzomib dose (15-56mg/m(2) ), dose-dependent inhibition of c20S and i20S chymotrypsin-like active sites was observed [whole blood: 67%; peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs): 75%]. A similar inhibition profile was observed in bone marrow-derived CD138(+) tumour cells. Carfilzomib-induced proteasome inhibition was durable, with minimal recovery in PBMCs after 24h but near-complete recovery between cycles. Importantly, the ProCISE assay can be used to quantify occupancy of individual c20S and i20S subunits. We observed a relationship between MM patient response (n=29), carfilzomib dose and occupancy of multiple i20S subunits, where greater occupancy was associated with an increased likelihood of achieving a clinical response at higher doses. ProCISE represents a new tool for measuring proteasome inhibitor activity in clinical trials and relating drug action to patient outcomes.


Richardson P.G.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Weller E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Lonial S.,Emory Winship Cancer Institute | Jakubowiak A.J.,University of Michigan | And 21 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2010

This phase 1/2 study is the first prospective evaluation of lenalidomide-bortezomib-dexamethasone in front-line myeloma. Patients (N = 66) received 3-week cycles (n = 8) of bortezomib 1.0 or 1.3 mg/m2 (days 1, 4, 8, 11), lenalidomide 15 to 25 mg (days 1-14), and dexamethasone 40 or 20 mg (days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12). Responding patients proceeded to maintenance or transplantation. Phase 2 dosing was determined to be bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2, lenalidomide 25 mg, and dexamethasone 20 mg. Most common toxicities included sensory neuropathy (80%) and fatigue (64%), with only 27%/2% and 32%/3% grade 2/3, respectively. In addition, 32% reported neuropathic pain (11%/3%, grade 2/3). Grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities included lymphopenia (14%), neutropenia (9%), and thrombocytopenia (6%). Thrombosis was rare (6% overall), and no treatment-related mortality was observed. Rate of partial response was 100% in both the phase 2 population and overall, with 74% and 67% each achieving very good partial response or better. Twenty-eight patients (42%) proceeded to undergo transplantation. With median follow-up of 21 months, estimated 18-month progression-free and overall survival for the combination treatment with/without transplantation were 75% and 97%, respectively. Lenalidomide-bortezomib-dexamethasone demonstrates favorable tolerability and is highly effective in the treatment of newly diagnosed myeloma. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00378105. © 2010 by The American Society of Hematology.

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