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Ludman P.F.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital | Moat N.,Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospital | De Belder M.A.,James Cook University | Blackman D.J.,Leeds Teaching Hospitals | And 14 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2015

Background - We assessed trends in the performance of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in the United Kingdom from the first case in 2007 to the end of 2012. We analyzed changes in case mix, complications, outcomes to 6 years, and predictors of mortality. Methods and Results - Annual cohorts were examined. Mortality outcomes were analyzed in the 92% of patients from England and Wales for whom independent mortality tracking was available. A total of 3980 transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures were performed. In successive years, there was an increase in frequency of impaired left ventricular function, but there was no change in Logistic EuroSCORE. Overall 30-day mortality was 6.3%; it was highest in the first cohort (2007-2008), after which there were no further significant changes. One-year survival was 81.7%, falling to 37.3% at 6 years. Discharge by day 5 rose from 16.7% in 2007 and 2008 to 28% in 2012. The only multivariate preprocedural predictor of 30-day mortality was Logistic EuroSCORE ≥40. During long-term follow-up, multivariate predictors of mortality were preprocedural atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, creatinine >200 μmol/L, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. The strongest independent procedural predictor of long-term mortality was periprocedural stroke (hazard ratio=3.00; P<0.0001). Nonfemoral access and postprocedural aortic regurgitation were also significant predictors of adverse outcome. Conclusions - We analyzed transcatheter aortic valve implantation in an entire country, with follow-up over 6 years. Although clinical profiles of enrolled patients remained unchanged, longer-term outcomes improved, and patients were discharged earlier. Periprocedural stroke, nonfemoral access, and postprocedural aortic regurgitation are predictors of adverse outcome, along with intrinsic patient risk factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Prendergast B.D.,St Thomass Hospital | Cahill T.J.,University of Oxford
F1000Research | Year: 2015

Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening disease caused by a focus of infection within the heart. For clinicians and scientists, it has been a moving target that has an evolving microbiology and a changing patient demographic. In the absence of an extensive evidence base to guide clinical practice, controversies abound. Here, we review three main areas of uncertainty: first, in prevention of infective endocarditis, including the role of antibiotic prophylaxis and strategies to reduce health care-associated bacteraemia; second, in diagnosis, specifically the use of multimodality imaging; third, we discuss the optimal timing of surgical intervention and the challenges posed by increasing rates of cardiac device infection. © 2015 Cahill TJ and Prendergast BD. Source

Browning A.C.,University of Nottingham | Halligan E.P.,St Thomass Hospital | Stewart E.A.,University of Nottingham | Swan D.C.,Northumbria University | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Background/Aims: To investigate the difference between human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human ocular microvascular endothelial cell (MVEC) gene expression, and to determine if these differences could improve the understanding of ocular angiogenic diseases. Methods: The gene expression profiles of HUVEC and matched unpassaged human choroidal, retinal and iris endothelial cells were conducted using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Selected differences were confirmed by real time PCR. Functional cell proliferation assays were used to support microarray findings. Results: HUVEC showed enrichment for probe sets involved in embryological development while ocular MVEC demonstrated enrichment for probe sets for MHC classes I and II, immune responses and cell signal transduction. Comparison of human retinal and choroidal endothelial cells demonstrated significant differences in the expression of probe sets encoding insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signalling. Cell proliferation assays demonstrated the stimulatory role of IGF-1 on retinal endothelial cells compared with choroidal endothelial cells. Conclusions: Gene expression profiling has demonstrated that HUVEC are probably not a suitable surrogate for the study of ocular angiogenic disorders. There are also significant differences in the gene expression of human retinal and choroidal endothelial cells, which may be important in the mechanism and treatment of choroidal and retinal neovascularisation. Source

Roessl E.,Philips | Schlomka J.-P.,Philips | Gaffney P.J.,St Thomass Hospital | Choi E.T.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2010

Multicolored imaging: A new class of molecular imaging agent has been developed based on low-molecular-weight organically soluble bismuth to detect and quantify intraluminal fibrin presented by ruptured plaque in the context of computed tomography angiograms without calcium interference. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Campbell P.J.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Campbell P.J.,University of Cambridge | MacLean C.,Addenbrookes Hospital | MacLean C.,University of Cambridge | And 9 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

Essential thrombocythemia, a myeloproliferative neoplasm, is associated with increased platelet count and risk of thrombosis or hemorrhage. Cytoreductive therapy aims to normalize platelet counts despite there being only a minimal association between platelet count and complication rates. Evidence is increasing for a correlation between WBC count and thrombosis, but prospective data are lacking. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between vascular complications and 21 887 longitudinal blood counts in a prospective, multicenter cohort of 776 essential thrombocythemia patients. After correction for confounding variables, no association was seen between blood counts at diagnosis and future complications. However, platelet count outside of the normal range during follow-up was associated with an immediate risk of major hemorrhage (P = .0005) but not thrombosis (P = .7). Elevated WBC count during follow-up was correlated with thrombosis (P = .05) and major hemorrhage (P = .01). These data imply that the aim of cytoreduction in essential thrombocythemia should be to keep the platelet count, and arguably the WBC count, within the normal range. This study is registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number Registry (www.isrctn.org) as number 72251782. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

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