Fredericton, Canada
Fredericton, Canada

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Cooke C.A.,University of Alberta | Hobbs W.O.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Neal M.,Queen's University | Wolfe A.P.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Lake sediments are frequently used to reconstruct the rate and magnitude of human impacts on the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg). The vast majority of these studies rely on excess 210Pb inventories in short cores to temporally constrain recent trends in Hg deposition, revealing an approximately 3-fold increase in Hg deposition since preindustrial times. However, the exhaustion of unsupported 210Pb and the onset of widespread global Hg pollution converge temporally in the late 19th century, raising the possibility that preindustrial Hg fluxes are poorly constrained. Here, we combine 210Pb and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dated lake sediment records from arctic and Andean lakes to assess the reliability of 210Pb-derived chronologies in the estimation of preindustrial Hg fluxes. For all four studied lakes, relying on 210Pb chronologies results in an overestimate of preindustrial Hg fluxes, because extrapolated basal 210Pb sedimentation rates are systematically overestimated in comparison to accumulation models that include 14C dates. In the Andes, the use of 14C dates is critical toward assessing the full history of Hg pollution, which extends beyond the industrial era. In the Arctic, 14C dating suggests that Hg deposition may have increased >10-fold since the Industrial Revolution, rather than the commonly quoted 3-fold increase.The incorporation of 14C dates maytherefore be necessary if accurate Hg flux histories are sought from oligotrophic lake sediments. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Allain K.A.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Sociology of Sport Journal | Year: 2015

The paper argues that the Canadian media's representations of National Hockey League (NHL) player Alexander Ovechkin work to locate Canadian national identity through its contrasts with the hockey superstar. Even though the press celebrates Ovechkin as a challenge to Cold War understandings of Soviet hockey players as lacking passion and heart as well as physical play, they also present Ovechkin as a 'dirty' hockey player who is wild and out of control. By assessing reports from two Canadian national newspapers, the Globe and Mail and the National Post, from 2009 to 2012, and comparing these documents to reports on two Cold War hockey contests, the 1972 Summit Series and the 1987 World Junior Hockey Championships, this article demonstrates how the Canadian media's paradoxical representations of Ovechkin break with and rearticulate Cold War understandings of Russian/Soviet athletes. Furthermore, when the press characterizes Ovechkin and other Russian hockey players as wild, unpredictable and out-of-control, they produce Canadian players as polite, disciplined and well-mannered. Through these opposing representations, the media helps to locate Canadian national hockey identity within a frame of appropriate masculine expression. © 2016 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Machum S.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2015

This article reviews the policy directives of national and provincial Departments of Agriculture in Canada and their uptake in practice on family farms in New Brunswick. Using Statistics Canada data, it explores the extent to which farmers' practices have mirrored the agricultural policy directives. It finds that agricultural policy favored industrial farm operations and processing companies and spurred concentration by creating ever larger farms. By documenting how policy discourses shift in tandem with farm practices, the article illustrates how agricultural policy development is a key driver in the structural transformation of agriculture. But this case study also shows that despite their exclusion from policy initiatives, small farms have stubbornly remained part of the New Brunswick's rural landscape.


Stanley Milgram's study of "obedience to authority" is one of the best-known psychological experiments of the twentieth century. This essay examines the study's special charisma through a detailed consideration of the intellectual, cultural, and gender contexts of Cold War America. It suggests that Milgram presented not a "timeless" experiment on "human nature" but, rather, a historically contingent, scientifically sanctioned "performance" of American masculinity at a time of heightened male anxiety. The essay argues that this gendered context invested the obedience experiments with an extraordinary plausibility, immediacy, and relevance. Immersed in a discourse of masculinity besieged, many Americans read the obedience experiments not as a fanciful study of laboratory brutality but as confirmation of their worst fears. Milgram's extraordinary success thus lay not in his "discovery" of the fragility of individual conscience but in his theatrical flair for staging culturally relevant masculine performances. © 2011 by The History of Science Society.


Dawson M.,St. Thomas University of Canada
American Review of Canadian Studies | Year: 2011

Scholarship examining public pronouncements on "mass culture" in Canada during the post-World War Two period has focused overwhelmingly on the pessimistic voices of the cultural critics who feared mass culture's deleterious effects upon national identity, democracy, and intellectual freedom. A more accurate understanding of the extent to which mass culture was contested terrain in post-war Canada requires an analysis of the optimistic pronouncements offered by business leaders and government officials. This article examines the rhetoric of Canada's leading post-war tourism promoter, Leo Dolan, and highlights the extent to which he viewed mass culture as a positive force that could achieve many of the same ends that the cultural critics endorsed. While cultural critics saw mass culture as a barrier to progress, Leo Dolan and other tourism promoters in North America championed tourism as an element of mass culture that would facilitate international understanding, strengthen national unity, and contribute to Western civilization. © 2011 ACSUS.


Baldwin C.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Journal of Aging Studies | Year: 2015

Narrative permeates health care-from patients' stories taken as medical histories to the development of health policy. The narrative approach to health care has involved the move from narratives in health care as objects of study to the lens through which health care is studied and, more recently, to narrative as a form of care. In this paper, I argue that narrative care requires a move in the field of ethics-from a position where narratives are used to inform ethical decision making to one in which narrative is the form and process of ethical decision making. In other words, I argue for a narrative ethics for narrative care. The argument is relatively straightforward. If, as I argue, humans are narrative beings who make sense of themselves, others, and the world in and through narrative, we need to see our actions as both narratively based and narratively contextual and thus understanding the nature, form, and content of the narratives of which we are a part, and the process of narrativity, provides an intersubjective basis for ethical action. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Randall W.L.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Gerontologist | Year: 2013

This essay applies a narrative perspective to the topic of resilience. On various fronts (physical, social, biographical), aging itself, it argues, pushes us past a perception of aging as intrinsically tragic and toward a more ironic stance instead, one marked by increased acceptance of uncertainty and ambiguity. Moreover, intentional engagement in narrative reflection-by means of integrative reminiscence, life review, and the like-fosters such a stance directly by facilitating narrative openness and, with it, "a good strong story" for coping with the challenges of later life. © 2012 The Author.


Wigginton B.,University of Queensland | Lafrance M.N.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Health, Risk and Society | Year: 2014

Despite women's awareness of the risks of smoking in pregnancy to the developing foetus, a significant minority continue to smoke during pregnancy. In this article, we use a discourse analytic approach to analyse interviews with 12 Australian women who smoked during a recent pregnancy. We used these data to examine how women accounted for their smoking and identities in the light of the implicit but ever-present discourse that smoking in pregnancy harms babies. We found that the women in our study deployed two rhetorical devices in their talk, 'stacking the facts' and 'smoking for health', allowing them to situate their smoking within a discourse of risk or as a potential benefit to their health. Women 'stacked the facts' by citing personal observable evidence (such as birthweight) to draw conclusions about the risks of smoking in pregnancy to the baby. 'Stacking the facts' allowed women to show how they had evaded the risks and their babies were healthy. This device also allowed women to deny or cast doubt over the risks of smoking in pregnancy. Women's accounts of 'smoking for health' involved positioning quitting as stressful and, as a result, more harmful than continuing to smoke a reduced amount. We found complex and counter-intuitive ways in which women dealt with the discourse that smoking in pregnancy harms babies and how these ways of accounting served to protect their identities. We argue that health promotion messages conveying the risks of smoking in pregnancy would benefit from contextualising these messages within women's personal accounts (e.g. by 'stacking the facts' or 'smoking for health') and hence providing more 'realistic' health risk messages. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Dylan A.,St. Thomas University of Canada | Coates J.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Social Work | Year: 2012

While concern for social justice has contributed to social work being sensitive to women's rights, gender equity, racism, colonialism and many other forms of oppression, the profession's embeddedness in modernity has limited its ability to move beyond an anthropocentric mindset. Consequently social injustices that accompany environmental destruction, remain at the margins of social work practices. This article examines justice issues in the context of contemporary environmental challenges and points out that environmental destruction carries distinct, often severe, social injustices to which social work should attend. Spirituality can play a vital role in drawing social and environmental injustices together enabling a truly transformative and radical practice. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Burnett P.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Agricultural History | Year: 2011

The oleomargarine controversy was a case of academic freedom in which nineteen researchers resigned from Iowa State College to protest pressure from the dairy industry to change their research findings. This article explores the ways in which the boundaries between science and politics were more blurred than they seemed at the time or in subsequent historical treatments. The argument begins with a history of the unique composition of agricultural economics research at Iowa State, refocuses the affair from a conflict between the state college and the dairy industry to one among a much larger number of actors, and concludes by demonstrating that one professor, Theodore Schultz, was in the process of transitioning to a new career in prescriptive policy work with private policy associations that ended up being opposed to the practices and policy goals of some of the farm organizations in question. © the Agricultural History Society, 2011.

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