St. Thomas University of Canada

Fredericton, Canada

St. Thomas University of Canada

Fredericton, Canada
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In 1966, Jamaica became the first nation outside of Britain and its former white dominions to host the Commonwealth Games. Jamaican officials anticipated that hosting the Games just four years after the nation achieved independence would provide the country with an unprecedented opportunity to announce itself to the world and secure valuable economic dividends. Recognising the importance of positive publicity, and the daunting task they faced, Jamaican authorities endeavoured to ensure that the Games were a success. Unfortunately, a number of vociferous officials, athletes and media commentators from the traditional host nations (the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand) were not shy when it came to sharing their views about the hosts' shortcomings. Such complaints expressed a consistent tone of disapproval with three main aspects of the Games: the extent to which they were able to sustain what was understood to be a traditional contribution to Commonwealth unity, the overall organisation of the competitions, and the state of the nation itself. These assessments also reveal a consistent sense of entitlement from the traditional host nations and highlight their sometimes alarmed responses to a changing political and athletic context in which Caribbean and African nations were becoming increasingly powerful. © 2014 The British Society of Sports History.

Houlihan M.,St. Thomas University of Canada | Stelmack R.M.,University of Ottawa
Journal of Individual Differences | Year: 2011

This article explores the contribution of differences in motor response initiation and execution to the biological bases of extraversion. Specifically, we examined individual differences in the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) for introverts and extraverts under conditions influencing stimulus evaluation time prior to response execution, i.e., stimulus information value and tonal complexity. The salient effects were longer stimulus-locked LRP and shorter response-locked LRP for extraverts than introverts to simple imperative stimuli to respond. The present studies (1) confirm that extraverts initiate movement faster and are less efficient than introverts in the processing of simple stimulus signals to respond and (2) endorse the view differences in sensory-motor processing are important determinants of variation in Extraversion. © 2011 Hogrefe Publishing.

Cooke C.A.,University of Alberta | Hobbs W.O.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Neal M.,Queen's University | Wolfe A.P.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Lake sediments are frequently used to reconstruct the rate and magnitude of human impacts on the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg). The vast majority of these studies rely on excess 210Pb inventories in short cores to temporally constrain recent trends in Hg deposition, revealing an approximately 3-fold increase in Hg deposition since preindustrial times. However, the exhaustion of unsupported 210Pb and the onset of widespread global Hg pollution converge temporally in the late 19th century, raising the possibility that preindustrial Hg fluxes are poorly constrained. Here, we combine 210Pb and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dated lake sediment records from arctic and Andean lakes to assess the reliability of 210Pb-derived chronologies in the estimation of preindustrial Hg fluxes. For all four studied lakes, relying on 210Pb chronologies results in an overestimate of preindustrial Hg fluxes, because extrapolated basal 210Pb sedimentation rates are systematically overestimated in comparison to accumulation models that include 14C dates. In the Andes, the use of 14C dates is critical toward assessing the full history of Hg pollution, which extends beyond the industrial era. In the Arctic, 14C dating suggests that Hg deposition may have increased >10-fold since the Industrial Revolution, rather than the commonly quoted 3-fold increase.The incorporation of 14C dates maytherefore be necessary if accurate Hg flux histories are sought from oligotrophic lake sediments. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Allain K.A.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Sociology of Sport Journal | Year: 2015

The paper argues that the Canadian media's representations of National Hockey League (NHL) player Alexander Ovechkin work to locate Canadian national identity through its contrasts with the hockey superstar. Even though the press celebrates Ovechkin as a challenge to Cold War understandings of Soviet hockey players as lacking passion and heart as well as physical play, they also present Ovechkin as a 'dirty' hockey player who is wild and out of control. By assessing reports from two Canadian national newspapers, the Globe and Mail and the National Post, from 2009 to 2012, and comparing these documents to reports on two Cold War hockey contests, the 1972 Summit Series and the 1987 World Junior Hockey Championships, this article demonstrates how the Canadian media's paradoxical representations of Ovechkin break with and rearticulate Cold War understandings of Russian/Soviet athletes. Furthermore, when the press characterizes Ovechkin and other Russian hockey players as wild, unpredictable and out-of-control, they produce Canadian players as polite, disciplined and well-mannered. Through these opposing representations, the media helps to locate Canadian national hockey identity within a frame of appropriate masculine expression. © 2016 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Machum S.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2015

This article reviews the policy directives of national and provincial Departments of Agriculture in Canada and their uptake in practice on family farms in New Brunswick. Using Statistics Canada data, it explores the extent to which farmers' practices have mirrored the agricultural policy directives. It finds that agricultural policy favored industrial farm operations and processing companies and spurred concentration by creating ever larger farms. By documenting how policy discourses shift in tandem with farm practices, the article illustrates how agricultural policy development is a key driver in the structural transformation of agriculture. But this case study also shows that despite their exclusion from policy initiatives, small farms have stubbornly remained part of the New Brunswick's rural landscape.

Stanley Milgram's study of "obedience to authority" is one of the best-known psychological experiments of the twentieth century. This essay examines the study's special charisma through a detailed consideration of the intellectual, cultural, and gender contexts of Cold War America. It suggests that Milgram presented not a "timeless" experiment on "human nature" but, rather, a historically contingent, scientifically sanctioned "performance" of American masculinity at a time of heightened male anxiety. The essay argues that this gendered context invested the obedience experiments with an extraordinary plausibility, immediacy, and relevance. Immersed in a discourse of masculinity besieged, many Americans read the obedience experiments not as a fanciful study of laboratory brutality but as confirmation of their worst fears. Milgram's extraordinary success thus lay not in his "discovery" of the fragility of individual conscience but in his theatrical flair for staging culturally relevant masculine performances. © 2011 by The History of Science Society.

Dawson M.,St. Thomas University of Canada
American Review of Canadian Studies | Year: 2011

Scholarship examining public pronouncements on "mass culture" in Canada during the post-World War Two period has focused overwhelmingly on the pessimistic voices of the cultural critics who feared mass culture's deleterious effects upon national identity, democracy, and intellectual freedom. A more accurate understanding of the extent to which mass culture was contested terrain in post-war Canada requires an analysis of the optimistic pronouncements offered by business leaders and government officials. This article examines the rhetoric of Canada's leading post-war tourism promoter, Leo Dolan, and highlights the extent to which he viewed mass culture as a positive force that could achieve many of the same ends that the cultural critics endorsed. While cultural critics saw mass culture as a barrier to progress, Leo Dolan and other tourism promoters in North America championed tourism as an element of mass culture that would facilitate international understanding, strengthen national unity, and contribute to Western civilization. © 2011 ACSUS.

Baldwin C.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Journal of Aging Studies | Year: 2015

Narrative permeates health care-from patients' stories taken as medical histories to the development of health policy. The narrative approach to health care has involved the move from narratives in health care as objects of study to the lens through which health care is studied and, more recently, to narrative as a form of care. In this paper, I argue that narrative care requires a move in the field of ethics-from a position where narratives are used to inform ethical decision making to one in which narrative is the form and process of ethical decision making. In other words, I argue for a narrative ethics for narrative care. The argument is relatively straightforward. If, as I argue, humans are narrative beings who make sense of themselves, others, and the world in and through narrative, we need to see our actions as both narratively based and narratively contextual and thus understanding the nature, form, and content of the narratives of which we are a part, and the process of narrativity, provides an intersubjective basis for ethical action. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Randall W.L.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Gerontologist | Year: 2013

This essay applies a narrative perspective to the topic of resilience. On various fronts (physical, social, biographical), aging itself, it argues, pushes us past a perception of aging as intrinsically tragic and toward a more ironic stance instead, one marked by increased acceptance of uncertainty and ambiguity. Moreover, intentional engagement in narrative reflection-by means of integrative reminiscence, life review, and the like-fosters such a stance directly by facilitating narrative openness and, with it, "a good strong story" for coping with the challenges of later life. © 2012 The Author.

Wigginton B.,University of Queensland | Lafrance M.N.,St. Thomas University of Canada
Health, Risk and Society | Year: 2014

Despite women's awareness of the risks of smoking in pregnancy to the developing foetus, a significant minority continue to smoke during pregnancy. In this article, we use a discourse analytic approach to analyse interviews with 12 Australian women who smoked during a recent pregnancy. We used these data to examine how women accounted for their smoking and identities in the light of the implicit but ever-present discourse that smoking in pregnancy harms babies. We found that the women in our study deployed two rhetorical devices in their talk, 'stacking the facts' and 'smoking for health', allowing them to situate their smoking within a discourse of risk or as a potential benefit to their health. Women 'stacked the facts' by citing personal observable evidence (such as birthweight) to draw conclusions about the risks of smoking in pregnancy to the baby. 'Stacking the facts' allowed women to show how they had evaded the risks and their babies were healthy. This device also allowed women to deny or cast doubt over the risks of smoking in pregnancy. Women's accounts of 'smoking for health' involved positioning quitting as stressful and, as a result, more harmful than continuing to smoke a reduced amount. We found complex and counter-intuitive ways in which women dealt with the discourse that smoking in pregnancy harms babies and how these ways of accounting served to protect their identities. We argue that health promotion messages conveying the risks of smoking in pregnancy would benefit from contextualising these messages within women's personal accounts (e.g. by 'stacking the facts' or 'smoking for health') and hence providing more 'realistic' health risk messages. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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