Gyory J.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution |
Pineda J.,St. Thomas University at Miami Gardens |
Solow A.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2013
Gravid adults of the common intertidal barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.) brood fully developed larvae until individuals perceive some cue from the environment that triggers synchronous larval release. The prevailing hypothesis has been that phytoplankton blooms trigger release because they provide a food source for nauplius larvae. Through observations and field experiments, we tested the hypothesis that turbidity from any source, not just phytoplankton blooms, can trigger release. We documented 5 larval release events at 3 sites in the northeastern USA. Two events coincided with chlorophyll increases, and all 5 coincided with turbidity in creases. In experiments, the larval release response was equivalent when adults were exposed to diatoms or inert synthetic beads, and it was significantly higher than under exposure to filtered seawater. We also tested the hypothesis that turbidity can decrease the risk of cannibalism for newly released nauplii. Under experimentally manipulated conditions, adults consumed significantly fewer nauplii in a high-turbidity environment. We suggest that reproduction in this species may have evolved to coincide roughly with the local onset of winter/spring phytoplankton blooms, but the timing of larval release may have been fine-tuned further by cannibalism and predation pressures. The potential for turbid conditions to serve as a refuge for planktonic larvae of other marine organisms merits further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Inter-Research.
Chan S.C.,Florida State University |
Misra V.,Florida State University |
Smith H.,St. Thomas University at Miami Gardens
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2011
The European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts Reanalysis-40 and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Department of Energy reanalyses are downscaled over the eastern Caribbean and Lesser Antilles using the NCEP-Scripps Regional Spectral Model for Augusts when the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) area is the most anomalous. The simulations show a two-way influence between the Lesser Antilles and the AWP: the islands modulate the regional atmospheric circulation, and AWP variations modulate the interannual variabilities of the islands. The Lesser Antilles introduce diurnal variations and drag to the easterlies. The presence of the islands modulates the prevalent easterlies as a result of the daytime heating of the islands and the consequent boundary layer expansion. The modulations are sensitive to the islands' size and topography. Small and flat islands act as thermal plumes, but the modulations of large and hilly islands are during the daytime as their boundary layer expands. The manifestation of the atmospheric response to the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the islands is sensitive to the island orography. For most islands, the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies is reflected only during the daytime. For all one-grid-point islands and Antigua, nighttime and dawn minimum temperatures are modulated to the same degree as the daytime maximum. For island rainfall, downscaling reduces the gross overestimations of rainfall in the reanalyses. However, our downscaling results suggest that there is room for improvement in simulating the marine surface diurnal cycle. Copyright © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Crossley G.H.,St. Thomas University at Miami Gardens |
Boyle A.,Rush University Medical Center |
Vitense H.,Medtronic Inc. |
Chang Y.,Medtronic Inc. |
Mead R.H.,Sequoia Hospital
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2011
Objectives: The primary objective was to determine if wireless remote monitoring with automatic clinician alerts reduces the time from a clinical event to a clinical decision in response to arrhythmias, cardiovascular (CV) disease progression, and device issues compared to patients receiving standard in-office care. A secondary objective was to compare the rates of CV health care utilization between patients in the remote and in-office arms. Background: In addition to providing life-saving therapy, implantable cardioverter- defibrillators collect advanced diagnostics on the progression of the patient's heart disease. Device technology has progressed to allow wireless remote monitoring with automatic clinician alerts to replace some scheduled in-office visits. Methods: The CONNECT (Clinical Evaluation of Remote Notification to Reduce Time to Clinical Decision) study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized evaluation involving 1,997 patients from 136 clinical sites who underwent insertion of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (including cardiac resynchronization therapy devices) and were followed up for 15 months. Health care utilization data included all CV-related hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and clinic office visits. Results: The median time from clinical event to clinical decision per patient was reduced from 22 days in the in-office arm to 4.6 days in the remote arm (p < 0.001). The health care utilization data revealed a decrease in mean length of stay per CV hospitalization visit from 4.0 days in the in-office arm to 3.3 days in the remote arm (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Wireless remote monitoring with automatic clinician alerts as compared with standard in-office follow-up significantly reduced the time to a clinical decision in response to clinical events and was associated with a significant reduction in mean length of CV hospital stay. (Clinical Evaluation of Remote Notification to Reduce Time to Clinical Decision [CONNECT]; NCT00402246) © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Bebeau M.J.,University of Minnesota |
Monson V.,St. Thomas University at Miami Gardens
Science and Engineering Ethics | Year: 2011
An historical review of authorship definitions and publication practices that are embedded in directions to authors and in the codes of ethics in the fields of psychology, sociology, and education illuminates reasonable agreement and consistency across the fields with regard to (a) originality of the work submitted, (b) data sharing, (c) human participants' protection, and (d) conflict of interest disclosure. However, the role of the professional association in addressing violations of research or publication practices varies among these fields. Psychology and sociology provide active oversight with sanction authority. In education, the association assumes a more limited role: to develop and communicate standards to evoke voluntary compliance. With respect to authorship credit, each association's standards focus on criteria for inclusion as an author, other than on the author's ability to defend and willingness to take responsibility for the entire work. Discussions across a broad range of research disciplines beyond the social sciences would likely be beneficial. Whether improved standards will reduce either misattribution or perceptions of inappropriate attribution of credit within social science disciplines will likely depend on how well authorship issues are addressed in responsible conduct of research education (RCR), in research practice, and in each association's ongoing efforts to influence normative practice by specifying and clarifying best practices. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Bostrom C.,Åbo Akademi University |
Pittman S.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |
Pittman S.J.,St. Thomas University at Miami Gardens |
Simenstad C.,University of Washington |
Kneib R.T.,University of Georgia
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2011
We review the progress made in the emerging field of coastal seascape ecology, i.e. the application of landscape ecology concepts and techniques to the coastal marine environment. Since the early 1990s, the landscape ecology approach has been applied in several coastal subtidal and intertidal biogenic habitats across a range of spatial scales. Emerging evidence indicates that animals in these seascapes respond to the structure of patches and patch mosaics in different ways and at different spatial scales, yet we still know very little about the ecological significance of these relationships and the consequences of change in seascape patterning for ecosystem functioning and overall biodiversity. Ecological interactions that occur within patches and among different types of patches (or seascapes) are likely to be critically important in maintaining primary and secondary production, trophic transfer, biodiversity, coastal protection, and supporting a wealth of ecosystem goods and services. We review faunal responses to patch and seascape structure, including effects of fragmentation on 5 focal habitats: seagrass meadows, salt marshes, coral reefs, mangrove forests, and oyster reefs. Extrapolating and generalizing spatial relationships between ecological patterns and processes across scales remains a significant challenge, and we show that there are major gaps in our understanding of these relationships. Filling these gaps will be crucial for managing and responding to an inevitably changing coastal environment. We show that critical ecological thresholds exist in the structural patterning of biogenic ecosystems that, when exceeded, cause abrupt shifts in the distribution and abundance of organisms. A better understanding of faunal-seascape relationships, including the identifications of threshold effects, is urgently needed to support the development of more effective and holistic management actions in restoration, site prioritization, and forecasting the impacts of environmental change. © Inter-Research 2011.
Rhodes K.L.,University of Hawaii at Hilo |
McIlwain J.,University of Guam |
Joseph E.,Conservation Society of Pohnpei |
Nemeth R.S.,St. Thomas University at Miami Gardens
Coral Reefs | Year: 2012
The brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, is a long-lived, late-maturing protogynous species listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN. In Pohnpei, Micronesia, reproductively active brown-marbled grouper were tagged with acoustic and spaghetti-type tags at a multi-species fish spawning aggregation (FSA) site to establish patterns of movement, residency and seasonality. Telemetry confirmed the use of common reproductive migratory corridors and significant sex-specific variations in residency at the FSA. Combined underwater visual census and telemetry data verified a 3-month peak aggregation period, with aggregations forming and persisting over ca. 12 days prior to full moon between January and May. FSA formation coincided with seasonally low and relatively stable seawater temperatures. Some males frequented the FSA site during each aggregation month over two consecutive years. Conversely, most females were present at the FSA during only a single aggregation period, with the month of visitation consistent among years. Nearly two-thirds of tagged fish were relocated or recaptured within 11 km of the aggregation site, with a maximum detected distance of 26 km and a minimum estimated catchment area of 100-175 km 2. Findings highlight the need for a combined approach to management that prohibits the capture and sale of reproductive adults and protects both spawning sites and common reproductive migratory corridors during aggregation periods. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Pittman S.J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |
Pittman S.J.,St. Thomas University at Miami Gardens |
Kneib R.T.,University of Georgia |
Simenstad C.A.,University of Washington
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2011
Landscape ecology concepts developed from terrestrial systems have recently emerged as theoretical and analytical frameworks that are equally useful for evaluating the ecological consequences of spatial patterns and structural changes in the submerged landscapes of coastal ecosystems. The benefits of applying a spatially-explicit perspective to resource management and restoration planning in the coastal zone are rapidly becoming apparent. This Theme Section on the application of landscape ecology to the estuarine and coastal environment emerged from a special symposium at the Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (CERF) 20th Biennial Conference (Estuaries and Coasts in a Changing World) held in Portland, Oregon, USA, in November 2009. The 7 contributions in this Theme Section collectively provide substantial insights into the current status and application of the landscape approach in shallow marine environments, and identify significant knowledge gaps, as well as potential directions for the future advancement of 'seascape ecology'. © Inter-Research 2011.
Murr R.,St. Thomas University at Miami Gardens
Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Social Work | Year: 2013
Many Christian leaders have asserted that queer and Christian are two mutually exclusive identities. Several studies have explored how gay men navigate conflicting spiritual and sexual identities. The same research does not exist for queer women. This study included 8 qualitative interviews of lesbian and bisexual women who grew up in nonaffirming Christian environments, and currently describe their spiritual practice as meaningful and affirming. Participants all shared negative experiences with Christianity, and a spiritual journey that resulted in profoundly meaningful spiritual lives. Implications suggest that social workers can offer a safe place for LGBTQ clients to address their spiritual issues. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Nemeth R.S.,St. Thomas University at Miami Gardens |
Kadison E.,St. Thomas University at Miami Gardens
Coral Reefs | Year: 2013
Reef fish spawning aggregations are important life history events that occur at specific times and locations and represent the primary mode of reproduction for many species. This paper provides detailed descriptions of aggregation formation and mass spawning of the Bermuda chub (Kyphosus sectatrix). Spawning coloration and gamete release of K. sectatrix were observed and filmed at the Grammanik Bank, a deep spawning aggregation site used by many different species located on the southern edge of the Puerto Rican shelf 10 km south of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. Underwater visual surveys using technical Nitrox and closed circuit re-breathers were conducted from December 2002 to March 2013 and documented spatial and temporal patterns of movement and aggregation formation along 1.5 km of mesophotic reef. The largest aggregations of K. sectatrix (>200 fish) were observed on the Grammanik Bank January to March from 0 to 11 d after the full moon with peak abundance from 60 to 80 d after the winter solstice across all survey years. Aggregation formation of K. sectatrix coincided with the spawning season of Nassau (Epinephelus striatus) and yellowfin (Mycteroperca venenosa) groupers. These spatial and temporal patterns of aggregation formation and spawning suggest that K. sectatrix, an herbivore, may also be a transient aggregating species. On several occasions, chubs were observed both pair spawning and mass spawning. Color patterns and behaviors associated with aggregation and spawning are described and compared to spawning characteristics observed in other species, many of which are similar but others that appear unique to K. sectatrix. This represents the first report of a kyphosid species aggregating to spawn and illuminates a portion of the poorly understood life history of the Bermuda chub. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Trastek V.F.,Mayo Medical School |
Hamilton N.W.,St. Thomas University at Miami Gardens |
Niles E.E.,St. Thomas University at Miami Gardens
Mayo Clinic Proceedings | Year: 2014
Our current health care system is broken and unsustainable. Patients desire the highest quality care, and it needs to cost less. To regain public trust, the health care system must change and adapt to the current needs of patients. The diverse group of stakeholders in the health care system creates challenges for improving the value of care. Health care providers are in the best position to determine effective ways of improving the value of care. To create change, health care providers must learn how to effectively lead patients, those within health care organizations, and other stakeholders. This article presents servant leadership as the best model for health care organizations because it focuses on the strength of the team, developing trust and serving the needs of patients. As servant leaders, health care providers may be best equipped to make changes in the organization and in the provider-patient relationship to improve the value of care for patients. © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.