Yilmaz S.,Kings College London |
Boffito M.,St. Stephen AIDS Trust |
Collot-Teixeira S.,Kings College London |
De Lorenzo F.,Beta Cell Diabetes Center |
And 7 more authors.
Genomics | Year: 2010
Ritonavir is a protease inhibitor associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease. We have investigated the effects of low-dose ritonavir treatment on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 10 healthy donors. Results using whole genome Illumina microarrays show that ritonavir modulates a number of genes implicated in lipid metabolism, inflammation and atherosclerosis. These candidate genes are dual specificity phosphatase 1 DUSP1), Kelch domain containing 3 (KLHDC3), neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 (NCEH1) and acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2). Validation experiments using quantitative PCR showed that ritonavir (at 100. mg once daily and 100. mg twice daily significantly down-regulated these 4 selected candidate genes in 20 healthy individuals. Lower expression levels of these 4 candidate genes, known to play a critical role in inflammation, lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, may explain ritonavir adverse effects in patients. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.