St Petersburg Pediatric Medical University

Saint Petersburg, Russia

St Petersburg Pediatric Medical University

Saint Petersburg, Russia

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PubMed | St Petersburg Pediatric Medical University and Saint Petersburg State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Hereditary cancer in clinical practice | Year: 2016

There is a number of drugs demonstrating specific activity towards hereditary cancers. For example, tumors in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers usually arise via somatic inactivation of the remaining BRCA allele, which makes them particularly sensitive to platinum-based drugs, PARP inhibitors(PARPi), mitomycin C, liposomal doxorubicin, etc. There are several molecular assays for BRCA-ness, which permit to reveal BRCA-like phenocopies among sporadic tumors and thus extend clinical indications for the use of BRCA-specific therapies. Retrospective data on high-dose chemotherapy deserve consideration given some unexpected instances of cure from metastatic disease among BRCA1/2-mutated patients. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is characterized by high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H), increased antigenicity and elevated expression of immunosuppressive molecules. Recent clinical trial demonstrated tumor responses in HNPCC patients treated by the immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab. There are successful clinical trials on the use of novel targeted agents for the treatment or rare cancer syndromes, e.g. RET inhibitors for hereditary medullary thyroid cancer, mTOR inhibitors for tumors arising in patients with tuberous sclerosis (TSC), and SMO inhibitors for basal-cell nevus syndrome. Germ-line mutation tests will be increasingly used in the future for the choice of the optimal therapy, therefore turnaround time for these laboratory procedures needs to be significantly reduced to ensure proper treatment planning.


Protsenko S.A.,Nn Petrov Institute Of Oncology | Semionova A.I.,Nn Petrov Institute Of Oncology | Komarov Y.I.,Nn Petrov Institute Of Oncology | Aleksakhina S.N.,Nn Petrov Institute Of Oncology | And 3 more authors.
Investigational New Drugs | Year: 2015

Summary: We report a patient with a metastatic relapse of clear cell sarcoma, whose tumor harbored BRAF V600E mutation. Standard chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide failed to slow the disease progression. Subsequent administration of vemurafenib (960 mg twice a day) resulted in complete tumor response after 8 weeks of treatment. Literature data on the use of vemurafenib and dabrafenib in non-melanoma BRAF-mutated tumors are reviewed. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Suspitsin E.N.,Saint Petersburg Pediatric Medical University | Sokolenko A.P.,Saint Petersburg Pediatric Medical University | Lyazina L.V.,Saint Petersburg Pediatric Medical University | Preobrazhenskaya E.V.,Nn Petrov Institute Of Oncology | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Syndromology | Year: 2015

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, postaxial polydactyly, retinitis pigmentosa, mental retardation, and kidney abnormalities. At least 19 genes have been shown to be associated with BBS, and therefore, genetic testing is highly complicated. We used an Illumina MiSeq platform for whole exome sequencing analysis of a family with strong clinical features of BBS. A homozygous c.1967-1968delTAinsC (p.Leu656fsX673; RefSeq NM-176824.2) mutation in BBS7 was identified in both affected children, while their healthy sibling and the non-consanguineous parents were heterozygous for this allele. Genotyping of 2,832 DNA samples obtained from Russian blood donors revealed 2 additional heterozygous subjects (0.07%) with the c.1967-1968delTAinsC mutation. These findings may facilitate the genetic diagnosis for Slavic BBS patients. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Iyevleva A.G.,St Petersburg Pediatric Medical University | Imyanitov E.N.,St. Petersburg State Medical University
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice | Year: 2016

There is a number of drugs demonstrating specific activity towards hereditary cancers. For example, tumors in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers usually arise via somatic inactivation of the remaining BRCA allele, which makes them particularly sensitive to platinum-based drugs, PARP inhibitors (PARPi), mitomycin C, liposomal doxorubicin, etc. There are several molecular assays for BRCA-ness, which permit to reveal BRCA-like phenocopies among sporadic tumors and thus extend clinical indications for the use of BRCA-specific therapies. Retrospective data on high-dose chemotherapy deserve consideration given some unexpected instances of cure from metastatic disease among BRCA1/2-mutated patients. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is characterized by high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H), increased antigenicity and elevated expression of immunosuppressive molecules. Recent clinical trial demonstrated tumor responses in HNPCC patients treated by the immune checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab. There are successful clinical trials on the use of novel targeted agents for the treatment or rare cancer syndromes, e.g. RET inhibitors for hereditary medullary thyroid cancer, mTOR inhibitors for tumors arising in patients with tuberous sclerosis (TSC), and SMO inhibitors for basal-cell nevus syndrome. Germ-line mutation tests will be increasingly used in the future for the choice of the optimal therapy, therefore turnaround time for these laboratory procedures needs to be significantly reduced to ensure proper treatment planning. © 2016 The Author(s).


Moiseyenko V.M.,Nn Petrov Institute Of Oncology | Volkov N.M.,Nn Petrov Institute Of Oncology | Suspistin E.N.,St Petersburg Pediatric Medical University | Yanus G.A.,St Petersburg Pediatric Medical University | And 6 more authors.
Medical Oncology | Year: 2013

Sensitivity of gastric cancer (GC) to conventional cytotoxic therapy may be at least in part attributed to molecular features of the tumor cells. We analyzed all patients with metastatic GC treated in the N.N. Petrov Institute of Oncology (St. Petersburg) within years 1999-2010 and identified 65 cases with evaluable treatment response and available biological material. Two of 65 patients (3 %) carried germ-line BRCA1 5382insC mutation and demonstrated particularly pronounced response to the treatment; both of their tumors showed loss of the remaining BRCA1 allele, thus confirming the causative role of BRCA1 heterozygosity in GC predisposition. RNA expression of TS, DPD, BRCA1, ERCC, TOP2A and bTUBIII was analyzed in the remaining 63 tumors. Low BRCA1 expression was associated with increased response rate [6/9 (67 %) vs. 17/54 (32 %), p = 0.04]. Low bTUBIII level correlated with the improved probability of tumor response [21/49 (43 %) vs. 1/13 (8 %), p = 0.02] and prolonged overall survival (10.5 vs. 7.1 months, p = 0.02); this trend was maintained both for taxane-containing and for taxane-free drug combinations. We conclude that GC should be considered as a part of BRCA1-related hereditary cancer syndrome. Tumors with BRCA1 inactivation and low bTUBIII expression demonstrate improved response to cytotoxic therapy. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Sokolenko A.P.,St Petersburg Pediatric Medical University | Preobrazhenskaya E.V.,St Petersburg Pediatric Medical University | Aleksakhina S.N.,Nn Petrov Institute Of Oncology | Iyevleva A.G.,St Petersburg Pediatric Medical University | And 7 more authors.
Cancer Letters | Year: 2015

Twenty one DNA repair genes were analyzed in a group of 95 BC patients, who displayed clinical features of hereditary disease predisposition but turned out to be negative for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 entire coding region as well as for founder disease-predisposing alleles in CHEK2, NBN/NBS1 and ATM genes. Full-length sequencing of CHEK2 and NBN/NBS1 failed to identify non-founder mutations. The analysis of TP53 revealed a woman carrying the R282W allele; further testing of additional 108 BC patients characterized by a very young age at onset (35 years or earlier) detected one more carrier of the TP53 germ-line defect. In addition, this study confirmed non-random occurrence of PALB2 truncating mutations in Russian hereditary BC patients. None of the studied cases carried germ-line defects in recently discovered hereditary BC genes, BRIP1, FANCC, MRE11A and RAD51C. The analysis of genes with yet unproven BC-predisposing significance (. BARD1, BRD7, CHEK1, DDB2, ERCC1, EXO1, FANCG, PARP1, PARP2, RAD51, RNF8, WRN) identified single women carrying a protein-truncating allele, WRN R1406X. DNA sequencing of another set of 95 hereditary BC cases failed to reveal additional WRN heterozygous genotypes. Since WRN is functionally similar to the known BC-predisposing gene, BLM, it deserves to be analyzed in future hereditary BC studies. Furthermore, this investigation revealed a number of rare missense germ-line variants, which are classified as probably protein-damaging by online in silico tools and therefore may require further consideration. © 2015.


PubMed | St Petersburg Pediatric Medical University and Nn Petrov Institute Of Oncology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular syndromology | Year: 2015

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, postaxial polydactyly, retinitis pigmentosa, mental retardation, and kidney abnormalities. At least 19 genes have been shown to be associated with BBS, and therefore, genetic testing is highly complicated. We used an Illumina MiSeq platform for whole exome sequencing analysis of a family with strong clinical features of BBS. A homozygous c.1967_1968delTAinsC (p.Leu656fsX673; RefSeq NM_176824.2) mutation in BBS7 was identified in both affected children, while their healthy sibling and the non-consanguineous parents were heterozygous for this allele. Genotyping of 2,832 DNA samples obtained from Russian blood donors revealed 2 additional heterozygous subjects (0.07%) with the c.1967_1968delTAinsC mutation. These findings may facilitate the genetic diagnosis for Slavic BBS patients.


PubMed | St Petersburg Pediatric Medical University and Nn Petrov Institute Of Oncology
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Investigational new drugs | Year: 2015

We report a patient with a metastatic relapse of clear cell sarcoma, whose tumor harbored BRAF V600E mutation. Standard chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide failed to slow the disease progression. Subsequent administration of vemurafenib (960 mg twice a day) resulted in complete tumor response after 8 weeks of treatment. Literature data on the use of vemurafenib and dabrafenib in non-melanoma BRAF-mutated tumors are reviewed.


Pitulko V.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Tikhonov A.N.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Pavlova E.Y.,Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute | Nikolskiy P.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Science | Year: 2016

Archaeological evidence for human dispersal through northern Eurasia before 40,000 years ago is rare. In west Siberia, the northernmost find of that age is located at 57°N. Elsewhere, the earliest presence of humans in the Arctic is commonly thought to be circa 35,000 to 30,000 years before the present. A mammoth kill site in the central Siberian Arctic, dated to 45,000 years before the present, expands the populated area to almost 72°N. The advancement of mammoth hunting probably allowed people to survive and spread widely across northernmost Arctic Siberia.


PubMed | St Petersburg Pediatric Medical University, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences and RAS Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Science (New York, N.Y.) | Year: 2016

Archaeological evidence for human dispersal through northern Eurasia before 40,000 years ago is rare. In west Siberia, the northernmost find of that age is located at 57N. Elsewhere, the earliest presence of humans in the Arctic is commonly thought to be circa 35,000 to 30,000 years before the present. A mammoth kill site in the central Siberian Arctic, dated to 45,000 years before the present, expands the populated area to almost 72N. The advancement of mammoth hunting probably allowed people to survive and spread widely across northernmost Arctic Siberia.

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