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Ioset K.N.,Copenhagen University | Ioset K.N.,University of Geneva | Nyberg N.T.,Copenhagen University | Van Diermen D.,University of Geneva | And 3 more authors.
Phytochemical Analysis | Year: 2011

Introduction - Rhodiola rosea is a broadly used medicinal plant with largely unexplored natural variability in secondary metabolite levels. Objective - The aim of this work was to develop a non-target procedure for 1H NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of rhizome extracts for pattern recognition analysis and identification of secondary metabolites responsible for differences in sample composition. To achieve this, plants fromthree different geographic areas (Swiss Alps, Finland, and Altai region in Siberia) were investigated. Results - A sample preparation procedure was developed in order to remove polymeric polyphenols as the 1H NMR analysis of low-molecular-weight metabolites was hampered by the presence of tannins. Principal component analysis disclosed tight clustering of samples according to population. PCA models based on the aromatic region of the spectra showed that the first two components reflected changes in the content of salidroside and rosavin, respectively, the rosavin content being negatively correlated to that of rhodiocyanoside A and minor aromatics. Score plots and non-parametric variance tests demonstrated population-dependent changes according to harvest time. Data consistency was assessed using score plots and box-and whisker graphs. In addition, a procedure for presenting loadings of PCA models based on bucketed data as high-resolution plots, which are reminiscent of real 1H NMR spectra and help to identify latent biomarkers, is presented. Conclusion - This study demonstrated the usefulness of the established procedure for multivariate non-target 1H NMR metabolic profiling of Rhodiola rosea. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Chernetsova E.S.,University of Hohenheim | Chernetsova E.S.,Peoples Friendship University of Russia | Shikov A.N.,St Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Crawford E.A.,IonSense Inc. | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2014

Chemical compositions of volatile and semi-volatile components in green and fermented leaves of Bergenia crassifolia L. were studied. Leaf components were identified using gas chromatography with low resolution mass spectrometry and direct analysis in real time (DART) high resolution mass spectrometry with an ID-CUBE ion source. Phytol, nerolidol, geraniol, linalool, α-bisabolol, α-bisabololoxide B, α-cadinol, δ-cadinene, α-terpineol and several other marker compounds of special interest were defined, for which the process of fermentation significantly changed their content in the leaves. Low resolution EI GC-MS and ID-CUBE DART-HRMS were found to be complementary methods, as they provide different information, helpful to increase the confidence of identification. © IM Publications LLP 2014. Source


Chernetsova E.S.,University of Hohenheim | Crawford E.A.,IonSense Inc. | Shikov A.N.,St Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Pozharitskaya O.N.,St Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | And 3 more authors.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2012

RATIONALE Bergenia crassifolia is a plant widely used in herbal medicine. Its chemical composition has been little studied, and no studies using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) have been performed. Its phenolic components are of particular interest, due to the interest in such compounds in medicine and cosmetics. The ID-CUBE, a simplified Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ion source, suitable for the fast MS analysis of liquids without complex sample preparation, offers a new method of studying extracts of such plant. Coupling the ID-CUBE with a high-resolution mass spectrometer can provide identification of extract components. METHODS Mass spectral conditions were optimized for model solutions of the flavonoid naringenin and used for the identification of phenolic compounds in green leaves extracts of Bergenia crassifolia. OpenSpot sample cards with a metal grid surface were used for sample introduction into the ID-CUBE ion source on an Obitrap mass spectrometer. The samples were applied as 5-μL aliquots of the extract onto the metal grid of the card. Sample ionization was stimulated in the ion source within 20 s by applying an electric current to the metal grid to thermally desorb the analytes into the gas flow of metastable helium atoms from the ID-CUBE. RESULTS Elemental compositions were assigned to abundant ions in the mass spectra of the extracts. The major phenolic components were confirmed by their [M-H] - ions. Thirty-six other marker ions were found, and elemental compositions were suggested for 30% of them, based on a search for compounds found in herbal extracts. CONCLUSIONS The ID-CUBE-Orbitrap MS coupling allowed the rapid accurate mass determination of the phenolic components (and other compounds) in herbal extracts. Higher confidence in component identification could be provided by using additional structural elucidation methods, including tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and this will be the focus of future studies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Damien Dorman H.J.,University of Helsinki | Shikov A.N.,St Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Pozharitskaya O.N.,St Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Hiltunen R.,University of Helsinki
Chemistry and Biodiversity | Year: 2011

Using spectrophotometric methods, a H 2O-soluble Potentilla alba L. rhizome extract was evaluated phytochemically, i.e., the total phenol, flavonoid, flavonol, flavanone, and proanthocyanidin contents were determined, and its antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties, i.e., the Fe III reductive and the Fe II chelating properties, the 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH ̇), N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD ̇+), and superoxide anion radical (O ̇- 2)-scavenging activities, the capacity to inhibit hydroxyl radical (HO ̇)-mediated deoxy-D-ribose and phospholipid degradation, and the interaction with the Cu-catalyzed HO ̇-mediated DNA degradation, were determined. The extract was found to contain a range of phenolic compounds recognized to possess strong antioxidant-like properties. Moreover, the extract demonstrated dose-dependent activities in all the antioxidant assays with the exception of the DNA-degradation assay, where the components within the extract interfered with the assay components at concentrations ≥1.00 mg/ml. Potentilla species are known for their curative properties, with aerial/subterranean parts being prescribed for numerous indications. The data presented here suggests, though does not conclude, that the rhizomes contain compounds possessing a range of antioxidant-related properties, which may underpin the therapeutic, viz., anti-inflammatory and adaptogenic effects, ascribed to species of this genus. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich. Source


Shikov A.N.,St Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Pozharitskaya O.N.,St Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Makarov V.G.,St Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy | Wagner H.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Due to the location of Russia between West and East, Russian phytotherapy has accumulated and adopted approaches that originated in European and Asian traditional medicine. Phytotherapy is an official and separate branch of medicine in Russia; thus, herbal medicinal preparations are considered official medicaments. The aim of the present review is to summarize and critically appraise data concerning plants used in Russian medicine. This review describes the history of herbal medicine in Russia, the current situation and the pharmacological effects of specific plants in the Russian Pharmacopoeia that are not included in the European Pharmacopoeia. Materials and methods Based on the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (11 th edition), we selected plant species that have not yet been adopted in Western and Central Europe (e.g.; selected for inclusion in the European Pharmacopoeia) and systematically searched the scientific literature for data using library catalogs, the online service E-library.ru, and databases such as Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, and the Web of Science regarding species, effectiveness, pharmacological effects, and safety. Results The Russian Federation follows the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (11th edition), which contains 83 individual plant monographs. Fifty-one of these plants are also found in the European Pharmacopoeia and have been well studied, but 32 plants are found only in the Pharmacopoeia of the USSR. Many articles about these medicinal plants were never translated in English, and much of the information collected by Russian scientists has never been made available to the international community. Such knowledge can be applied in future studies aimed at a safe, evidence-based use of traditional Russian medicinal plants in European and global phytopharmacotherapy as well as for the discovery of novel leads for drug development. Conclusion The review highlights the therapeutic potential of these Russian phytopharmaceuticals but also highlights cases where concern has been raised about product safety and tolerability, which would aid in supporting their safe use. © 2014 The Authors. Source

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