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McKenna K.D.,National Association of EMS Educators Research Committee | Carhart E.,Center for Healthcare Simulation Research | Carhart E.,Roanoke College | Bercher D.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Prehospital Emergency Care | Year: 2015

Objectives. The purpose of this research was to characterize the use of simulation in initial paramedic education programs in order assist stakeholders' efforts to target educational initiatives and resources. This group sought to provide a snapshot of what simulation resources programs have or have access to and how they are used; faculty perceptions about simulation; whether program characteristics, resources, or faculty training influence simulation use; and if simulation resources are uniform for patients of all ages. Methods. This was a cross-sectional census survey of paramedic programs that were accredited or had a Letter of Review from the Committee on Accreditation of Educational Programs for the EMS Professions at the time of the study. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses. Results. Of the 638 surveys sent, 389 valid responses (61%) were analyzed. Paramedic programs reported they have or have access to a wide range of simulation resources (task trainers [100%], simple manikins [100%], intermediate manikins [99%], advanced/fully programmable manikins [91%], live simulated patients [83%], computer-based [71%], and virtual reality [19%]); however, they do not consistently use them, particularly advanced (71%), live simulated patients (66%), computer-based (games, scenarios) (31%), and virtual reality (4%). Simulation equipment (of any type) reportedly sits idle and unused in (31%) of programs. Lack of training was cited as the most common reason. Personnel support specific to simulation was available in 44% of programs. Programs reported using simulation to replace skills more frequently than to replace field or clinical hours. Simulation goals included assessment, critical thinking, and problem-solving most frequently, and patient and crew safety least often. Programs using advanced manikins report manufacturers as their primary means of training (87%) and that 19% of faculty had no training specific to those manikins. Many (78%) respondents felt they should use more simulation. Conclusions. Paramedic programs have and have access to diverse simulation resources; however, faculty training and other program resources appear to influence their use. © 2015 National Association of EMS Physicians. Source


Papadopoulos A.,St Petersburg College
Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics | Year: 2016

Introduction The weight-bearing foot assumes the reference plantar morphology while resting on a functional foot orthosis that is supported by a flat surface. The weight-bearing foot, however, can assume a different plantar morphology from the reference while resting on the orthosis that is inside a shoe in which the shank is a curved surface. If there is a difference in the plantar morphology, then the plantar deformation is abnormal because a functional foot orthosis should not deform along the shank of a shoe. Materials and Methods This technical note describes a procedure to screen for abnormal deformation of the weight-bearing foot at the orthosis-foot interface. Casting the weight-bearing foot at the orthosis-foot interface on a flat surface and inside a shoe is performed to capture the reference and the in-shoe plantar morphology, respectively. Both the reference and the in-shoe plantar surface contour are then superimposed via Bookstein two-point registration to screen for abnormal deformation. Conclusions The procedure described in this note should be implemented to determine the suitability of footwear with a functional foot orthosis in refractory cases of functional foot disorders. © 2016 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Kouzoukas D.E.,Research and Development | Kouzoukas D.E.,University of Kentucky | Kouzoukas D.E.,Loyola University Chicago | Ma F.,Research and Development | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Pain is the significant presenting symptom in Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS). Activation of urothelial protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4) causes pain through release of urothelial macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). High Mobility Group Box-1(HMGB1), a chromatin-binding protein, mediates bladder pain (but not inflammation) in an experimental model (cyclophosphamide) of cystitis. To determine if PAR4-induced bladder hypersensitivity depends on HMGB1 downstream, we tested whether: 1) bladder PAR4 stimulation affected urothelial HMGB1 release; 2) blocking MIF inhibited urothelial HMGB1 release; and 3) blocking HMGB1 prevented PAR4-induced bladder hypersensitivity. HMGB1 release was examined in immortalized human urothelial cultures (UROtsa) exposed to PAR4-activating peptide (PAR4-AP; 100 μM; 2 hours) or scrambled control peptide. Female C57BL/6 mice, pretreated with a HMGB1 inhibitor (glycyrrhizin: 50 mg/kg; IP) or vehicle, received intravesical PAR4-AP or a control peptide (100 uM; 1 hour) to determine 1) HMGB1 levels at 1 hour in the intravesical fluid (released HMGB1) and urothelium, and 2) abdominal hypersensitivity to von Frey filament stimulation 24 hours later. We also tested mice pretreated with a MIF blocker (ISO-1:20 mg/kg; IP) to determine whether MIF mediated PAR4-induced urothelial HMGB1 release. PAR4-AP triggered HMGB1 release from human (in vitro) and mice (in vivo) urothelial cells. Intravesical PAR4 activation elicited abdominal hypersensitivity in mice that was prevented by blocking HMGB1. MIF inhibition prevented PAR4-mediated HMGB1 release from mouse urothelium. Urothelial MIF and HGMB1 represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention in bladder pain conditions. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. Source


Eadens D.M.,Northern Arizona University | Cranston-Gingras A.,University of South Florida | Dupoux E.,St Petersburg College | Eadens D.W.,Northern Arizona University
Policing | Year: 2016

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine police officer perceptions about persons with intellectual disabilities. Design/methodology/approach – In this study, 188 officers from three police districts in the Southeast USA were surveyed using a modified Social Distance Questionnaire. Findings – Results indicate that the majority of police officers surveyed had little or no training with regard to disabilities and that most are willing to interact socially with individuals with intellectual disabilities. Further, this study found that female officers had significantly greater positive attitudes toward individuals with intellectual disabilities than male respondents and that white respondents were more knowledgeable about these individuals than those from minority backgrounds. Research limitations/implications – While these results are significant, it should be noted that the number of female and minority participants was relatively low. Practical implications – The paper includes recommendations for professional development for police officer and criminal justice training programs. Social implications – As individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities are increasingly integrated into society, their vulnerability to mishandling by the criminal justice system and police officers intensifies. This paper allows police officers and those within the field of criminal justice an opportunity to examine perceptions as they seek to understand how police and general societal perceptions impact the way that people interact with persons with intellectual disabilities. Originality/value – This paper fulfills a need to examine attitudes of police officers toward citizens with intellectual disabilities in the communities in which they live. These attitudes often affect the way that police officers interact with citizens and identify additional training needs to better prepare officers for diverse individuals they may will encounter. © 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Phipps M.,Intensive Care Unit | Tittle M.B.,St Petersburg College | Zuhlke R.,Intensive Care Unit | Bellanton B.,Intensive Care Unit
Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND:: Depression has been studied in many patient populations and has been found to significantly impact the course of illness, recovery, and outcome. OBJECTIVES:: Depression among the trauma patient population is underrecognized by health practitioners and precludes patient participation with rehabilitation-related activities, which ultimately leads to delayed recovery from traumatic injuries. METHODS:: This descriptive study evaluated in-hospital depression in patients admitted to trauma services in an urban level II trauma center by using a depression scale and chart review. Results were correlated with patients' self-reported degree of recovery during a follow-up phone call 6 months after hospital discharge. RESULTS:: There was no significant correlation between recovery and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score, Injury Severity Scale, or length of stay. Although no significant correlations were found, more than one-half of the patients who went to a rehabilitation facility reported recovery, whereas only 1 of the 4 patients who did not go to a rehabilitation facility reported recovery. DISCUSSION:: The findings suggest that medical funding with rehabilitation benefits is more predictive of patient's perception of recovery than in-hospital depression. Limitations of this study were significant, including patient population changes and administrative restructuring. Evaluation of those limitations may lead to increased support for bedside nurses to engage in research aimed at contributing to evidence-based practice. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health. Source

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