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George D.,St Peters Engineering College | Blieck A.,Lille University of Science and Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago - MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375-385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397-416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. © 2011 George, Blieck. Source


Pandiyarajan V.,Anna University | Chinna Pandian M.,St Peters Engineering College | Malan E.,Anna University | Velraj R.,Anna University | Seeniraj R.V.,Anna University
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

The exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine carries away about 30% of the heat of combustion. The energy available in the exit stream of many energy conversion devices goes as waste, if not utilized properly. The major technical constraint that prevents successful implementation of waste heat recovery is due to its intermittent and time mismatched demand and availability of energy. In the present work, a shell and finned tube heat exchanger integrated with an IC engine setup to extract heat from the exhaust gas and a thermal energy storage tank used to store the excess energy available is investigated in detail. A combined sensible and latent heat storage system is designed, fabricated and tested for thermal energy storage using cylindrical phase change material (PCM) capsules. The performance of the engine with and without heat exchanger is evaluated. It is found that nearly 10-15% of fuel power is stored as heat in the combined storage system, which is available at reasonably higher temperature for suitable application. The performance parameters pertaining to the heat exchanger and the storage tank such as amount of heat recovered, heat lost, charging rate, charging efficiency and percentage energy saved are evaluated and reported in this paper. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Palvannan V.,Jaya Engineering College | Balagurunathan K.,St Peters Engineering College
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2012

Cashew is an immigrant tree from Eastern Brazil and now among the top three commercial crops of India. Cashew Nut Shell contains 25-34% oil which was not much used earlier. Commercial and industrial applications are being developed in the recent decade. This research work investigates cold pressed, straight Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) as an alternative fuel for Internal Combustion Engine, which was not experimented earlier. CNSL can power the engines at cashew processing industries and surrounding places and has the cost saving advantage due to its much lesser price compared to diesel. In this experimental investigation, the effect of using straight CNSL - diesel blends of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by volume, are evaluated for brake power, thermal efficiency, emissions and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, compression ignition engine. For direct blending, brake thermal efficiency is closer to neat diesel upto 20% CNSL. For 30% CNSL blend, Brake Thermal Efficiency is 2 to 3% less than that of neat diesel operation. The peak cylinder pressure, heat release rate for CNSL-diesel blends diminish slightly compared to those of diesel fuel operation with increasing CNSL proportions. Diesel knocking was observed for 40% CNSL and engine could not reach full load. Carbon monoxide (CO) decreases upto 65% load and then increases. Hydrocarbon and smoke emissions are closer to diesel at higher loads. Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions are higher by 90 to 320ppm compared to neat diesel. Overall it can be concluded that upto 35% CNSL-diesel blends can be safely used in diesel engine without any additive or modification. © 2012 EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. Source


Loganathan P.,Anna University | Golden Stepha N.,St Peters Engineering College
International Review of Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2012

The present paper deals with the analysis of heat and mass transfer of a micropolar fluid on continuously moving plate with suction or injection. The plate is moving with a constant velocity in the fluid which is considered as gray, absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium. The radiative heat flux and viscous dissipation are taken into account in the energy equation. The partial differential equations governing the flow have been transformed into system of ordinary differential equation and solved numerically by fourth order Runge-Kutta method with shooting technique. The velocity, microrotation, temperature, concentration, skin-friction, rate of heat and mass transfer are shown graphically. © 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved. Source


Theneshkumar S.,St Peters Engineering College | Nagendra Gandhi N.,Anna University
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data | Year: 2010

The effect of various hydrotropes such as sodium salicylate, sodium benzoate, and nicotinamide on the solubility and mass transfer coefficient of stearic acid was investigated under a wide range of hydrotrope concentrations, (0 to 3.0) mol·kg -1, and different system temperatures, T = (303 to 333) K. It was found that the solubility and mass transfer coefficient of stearic acid increase with the increase in hydrotrope concentration and also with system temperature. All hydrotropes used in this work showed an enhancement in the solubility and mass transfer coefficient to different degrees. The order of increase in the solubility and mass transfer coefficient of stearic acid with respect to different hydrotropes was found to be sodium salicylate > sodium benzoate > nicotinamide. The maximum enhancement factor value has been determined for both the solubility and the mass transfer coefficient. The effectiveness of hydrotropes was measured in terms of Setschnew constant K s and reported for all hydrotropes used in this study. In addition the solubility data are also fitted in a polynomial equation as a function of hydrotrope concentration. The solubility data fitted in a polynomial equation give a better fit since the variance is less than 0.6. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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