St Pauls Hospital

Vancouver, Canada

St Pauls Hospital

Vancouver, Canada
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Chuang C.-H.,St Pauls Hospital
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND:: The gastrointestinal tract is not the common infection site of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The role of P. aeruginosa as a causative agent for diarrhea in children without pre-existing disease is controversial. METHODS:: From 2003 to 2012 we reviewed the records of 259 diarrheal patients less than 5 years of age whose stool culture grew P. aeruginosa. Virulence phenotypes of bacterial isolates were determined in vitro, including cytotoxicity, penetration and adherence to epithelial cells. RESULTS:: The presence of P. aeruginosa in children with diarrhea less than 5 years old is 0.91%. P. aeruginosa-associated diarrheal diseases were classified into 4 groups: Shanghai fever (enteric infection and sepsis) (5%), P. aeruginosa enterocolitis (15%), P. aeruginosa-related diarrhea (19%) and antibiotic-associated diarrhea (43%). The remaining patients had co-infection with other pathogens (18%). Shanghai fever was the most severe enteric disease with invasive infection and complications. The clinical features of P. aeruginosa enterocolitis were prolonged fever with bloody or mucoid diarrhea mimicking bacterial enterocolitis. The clinical features of P. aeruginosa-related diarrhea and antibiotic-associated diarrhea were similar to viral or toxin-mediated diarrhea. Compared with other P. aeruginosa-associated diarrheal diseases, patients with Shanghai fever were younger, usually infants, and the characteristic laboratory findings included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, high C-reactive protein, hyponatremia and hyperglycemia. Except for Shanghai fever, antibiotic treatment is not recommended. Isolates from Shanghai fever were more cytotoxic and adherent than isolates from uncomplicated diarrheal patients. CONCLUSIONS:: P. aeruginosa could be an enteric pathogen even in healthy children. Young age and highly virulent bacterial strains were risk factors for Shanghai fever Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Stevens P.E.,Kent and Canterbury Hospital | Levin A.,St Pauls Hospital
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2013

Description: The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) organization developed clinical practice guidelines in 2012 to provide guidance on the evaluation, management, and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults and children who are not receiving renal replacement therapy. Methods: The KDIGO CKD Guideline Development Work Group defined the scope of the guideline, gathered evidence, determined topics for systematic review, and graded the quality of evidence that had been summarized by an evidence review team. Searches of the English-language literature were conducted through November 2012. Final modification of the guidelines was informed by the KDIGO Board of Directors and a public review process involving registered stakeholders. Recommendations: The full guideline included 110 recommendations. This synopsis focuses on 10 key recommendations pertinent to definition, classification, monitoring, and management of CKD in adults. © 2013 American College of Physicians.

With the aim of rapid, culture-independent identification of microorganisms directly from urine specimens, we developed a diafiltration matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method. In this procedure, urine specimens are desalted, fractionated, and concentrated prior to MS analysis. The analytic performance characteristics of the diafiltration method were assessed in a prospective trial whereby 100 fresh urine specimens were processed using diafiltration MALDI-TOF MS. Concomitant with this, conventional culture was performed with results blinded to the MS operator. The diafiltration method correctly identified urine specimens positive for uropathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis) and correctly classified all specimens negative for clinically relevant bacteriuria, including a subset of contaminated urine specimens and a subset with growth of clinically insignificant flora. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 67% and 100%, respectively. The detection limit of this method was 10(5) to 10(6) colony-forming units/mL. Using the diafiltration method, we were able to improve the turnaround time for microorganism identification from 24 to 48 hours (for conventional culture) to 2 to 3 hours. Although methodological refinements are under way to further improve the clinical sensitivity and turnaround time, the 100% positive predictive value of this method suggests that it could be used to guide the selection of antimicrobial agents.

McElhaney J.E.,St Pauls Hospital
Expert Review of Vaccines | Year: 2010

Medical advances have markedly increased human longevity, but this longer life comes at a price; older people often suffer from greater morbidities that severely impact their day-to-day ability to function normally. However, there is a growing commitment from the medical community to add 'quality to the extra years that people live. An important question in this regard is: how do we impact usual aging, with its attendant higher risks of disease and turn it into successful aging and independency? That is the focus of this review, which looks at herpes zoster (HZ), a condition that is both common and causes severe complications in the elderly. Even with appropriate treatment, HZ can have a significant negative impact on the patients quality of life. A previously active individual can be severely affected by the disease and its complications such as postherpetic neuralgia. Clinical management, at best, produces modest benefit (for a variety of reasons including a delay in providing treatment, ineffective drugs chosen, poor tolerability and drug-drug interactions). We then find ourselves in the position of trying to treat a patient who is losing confidence in the options available to them, and who is slowly becoming less active and, if we are not careful, more frail and with the increasing likelihood of requiring long-term care. Both the personal and societal burden of HZ and postherpetic neuralgia are therefore considerable, and this highlights the need for better preventative and treatment strategies. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Brown G.R.,St Pauls Hospital
Annals of Intensive Care | Year: 2014

The optimum dosage regimen for cotrimoxazole in the treatment of life threatening infections due to susceptible organisms encountered in critically ill patients is unclear despite decades of the drug’s use. Therapeutic drug monitoring to determine the appropriate dosing for successful infection eradication is not widely available. The clinician must utilize published pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and effective inhibitory concentration information to determine potential dosing regimens for individual patients when treating specific pathogens. Using minimum inhibitory concentrations known to successfully block growth for target pathogens, the pharmacokinetics of both trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole can be utilized to establish empiric dosing regimens for critically ill patients while considering organ of clearance impairment. The author’s recommendations for appropriate dosing regimens are forwarded based on these parameters. © 2014, Brown; licensee Springer.

Ye J.,St Pauls Hospital | Webb J.G.,University of British Columbia
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Year: 2014

Objective We report our first-in-human clinical experience in the use of the new version of the EMBOL-X intra-aortic filter (Edwards Lifesciences Corporation, Irvine, Calif) to capture embolic material during transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation and cardiac surgery.Method Five patients were enrolled into the first-in-human clinical assessment of the new version of the EMBOL-X intra-aortic filter. Three patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, and 2 patients underwent transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation. During coronary artery bypass grafting, the filter was deployed before clamping of the aorta and removal of the aortic clamp. In contrast, the filter was deployed before aortic puncture for transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation and kept in the aorta throughout the entire procedure.Results The filter introducer sheath and filter were easily placed and removed without difficulty. There were no complications related to the use of the filter. Postoperative examination of the retrieved filters revealed the presence of multiple microemboli in the filters from all 5 cases. Histologic study revealed various kinds of tissue and thrombus.Conclusions This first-in-human clinical experience has demonstrated the safety and feasibility of using the new version of the EMBOL-X intra-aortic filter during either cardiac surgery or transaortic transcatheter aortic valve implantation. We believe that the combination of the transaortic approach without aortic arch manipulation and the use of the EMBOL-X filter with a high capture rate is a promising strategy to reduce the incidence of embolic complications during transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Russell J.A.,St Pauls Hospital
Critical Care | Year: 2012

Smith and Perner report an observational cohort study of 164 patients with septic shock. For patients still alive on day 3, higher compared with lower fluid volume resuscitation was associated with lower 90-day mortality. This association of a relationship between fluid intake and decreased mortality aligns with the randomized controlled trial of early goal-directed therapy and later observational studies. I suggest careful individualization of fluid resuscitation to achieve adequate mean arterial pressure (about 60 to 70 mmHg) and normalization of arterial lactate levels in septic shock. Trial registration: ISRCTN94845869. © 2012 BioMed Central Ltd.

Suetrong B.,St Pauls Hospital | Walley K.R.,St Pauls Hospital
Chest | Year: 2016

Increased blood lactate concentration (hyperlactatemia) and lactic acidosis (hyperlactatemia and serum pH < 7.35) are common in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In some patients, most of the lactate that is produced in shock states is due to inadequate oxygen delivery resulting in tissue hypoxia and causing anaerobic glycolysis. However, lactate formation during sepsis is not entirely related to tissue hypoxia or reversible by increasing oxygen delivery. In this review, we initially outline the metabolism of lactate and etiology of lactic acidosis; we then address the pathophysiology of lactic acidosis in sepsis. We discuss the clinical implications of serum lactate measurement in diagnosis, monitoring, and prognostication in acute and intensive care settings. Finally, we explore treatment of lactic acidosis and its impact on clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published byElsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

McGovern R.A.,St Pauls Hospital
Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) | Year: 2012

MERIT was a randomized trial comparing maraviroc (MVC) + Combivir versus efavirenz (EFV) + Combivir in drug-naive patients screened as having R5 HIV-1 by the original Trofile assay (OTA). We retrospectively evaluated treatment response after rescreening for viral tropism using population-based V3-loop sequencing. HIV env V3-loop was amplified in triplicate using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction from stored screening plasma and sequenced. Automated base calling was performed using custom software (RECall) and tropism inferred by geno2pheno (5.75% false-positive rate). Tropism results by genotype were compared with those of OTA and Enhanced Sensitivity Trofile assay (ESTA), where all results were available (n = 876). Approximately 8% of patients screened as having R5 virus by OTA were classified as having non-R5 virus by V3-loop genotyping. These patients were less likely to have early or sustained week-48 treatment response to MVC, but not EFV. When restricted to patients with R5 virus by genotype, reanalysis of the primary study endpoint (plasma viral load <50 copies/mL at week 48) showed noninferiority of MVC twice daily to EFV (67% vs. 68%). Rescreening by genotype and ESTA had 84% concordance; patients receiving MVC twice daily rescreened as having R5 virus had greater than 1 log10 copies per milliliter decrease in viral load over those rescreened as having non-R5 virus. Where genotype and ESTA screening results were discordant outcomes were similar. The exclusion of ∼8% of patients with CXCR4-using virus by population-based sequencing would likely have resulted in noninferior responses in the MVC twice-daily and EFV arms. Rescreening by ESTA and population-based sequencing predicted similar virological response.

Russell J.A.,St Pauls Hospital
Critical Care | Year: 2011

This review of vasopressin in septic shock differs from previous reviews by providing more information on the physiology and pathophysiology of vasopressin and vasopressin receptors, particularly because of recent interest in more specific AVPR1a agonists and new information from the Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial (VASST), a randomized trial of vasopressin versus norepinephrine in septic shock. Relevant literature regarding vasopressin and other AVPR1a agonists was reviewed and synthesized. Vasopressin, a key stress hormone in response to hypotension, stimulates a family of receptors: AVPR1a, AVPR1b, AVPR2, oxytocin receptors and purinergic receptors. Rationales for use of vasopressin in septic shock are as follows: first, a deficiency of vasopressin in septic shock; second, low-dose vasopressin infusion improves blood pressure, decreases requirements for norepinephrine and improves renal function; and third, a recent randomized, controlled, concealed trial of vasopressin versus norepinephrine (VASST) suggests low-dose vasopressin may decrease mortality of less severe septic shock. Previous clinical studies of vasopressin in septic shock were small or not controlled. There was no difference in 28-day mortality between vasopressin-treated versus norepinephrine-treated patients (35% versus 39%, respectively) in VASST. There was potential benefit in the prospectively defined stratum of patients with less severe septic shock (5 to 14 μg/minute norepinephrine at randomization): vasopressin may have lowered mortality compared with norepinephrine (26% versus 36%, respectively, P = 0.04 within stratum). The result was robust: vasopressin also decreased mortality (compared with norepinephrine) if less severe septic shock was defined by the lowest quartile of arterial lactate or by use of one (versus more than one) vasopressor at baseline. Other investigators found greater hemodynamic effects of higher dose of vasopressin (0.06 units/minute) but also unique adverse effects (elevated liver enzymes and serum bilirubin). Use of higher dose vasopressin requires further evaluation of efficacy and safety. There are very few studies of interactions of therapies in critical care - or septic shock - and effects on mortality. Therefore, the interaction of vasopressin infusion, corticosteroid treatment and mortality of septic shock was evaluated in VASST. Low-dose vasopressin infusion plus corticosteroids significantly decreased 28-day mortality compared with corticosteroids plus norepinephrine (44% versus 35%, respectively, P = 0.03; P = 0.008 interaction statistic). Prospective randomized controlled trials would be necessary to confirm this interesting interaction. In conclusion, low-dose vasopressin may be effective in patients who have less severe septic shock already receiving norepinephrine (such as patients with modest norepinephrine infusion (5 to 15 μg/minute) or low serum lactate levels). The interaction of vasopressin infusion and corticosteroid treatment in septic shock requires further study. © 2011 BioMed Central Ltd.

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