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Northfield, MN, United States

St. Olaf College is a coeducational, residential, four-year, private liberal arts college in Northfield, Minnesota, United States. It was founded in 1874 by a group of Norwegian-American immigrant pastors and farmers, led by Pastor Bernt Julius Muus. The college is named after the King and the Patron Saint Olaf II of Norway. Wikipedia.

Cole E.,St. Olaf College | Sugai T.,Ibaraki University
Methods in Cell Biology | Year: 2012

The ciliate . Tetrahymena thermophila can be said to undergo a variety of developmental programs. During vegetative growth, cells coordinate a variety of cell-cycle operations including macronuclear DNA synthesis and a-mitotic fission, micronuclear DNA synthesis and mitosis, cytokinesis and an elaborate program of cortical morphogenesis that replicates the cortical organelles. When starved, cells undergo oral replacement, transformation into fast-swimming dispersal forms or, when encountering cells of a complementary mating type, conjugation. Conjugation involves a 12 hour program of meiosis, mitosis, nuclear exchange and karyogamy, and two postzygotic divisions of the fertilization nucleus. This chapter reviews experimental data exploring the developmental dependencies associated with both vegetative and conjugal development. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p<0.05). Cacao also hosted a greater number and mass of earthworms than banana and pineapple (p<0.05), but similar to forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p<0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p<0.0001). Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports the organic cultivation of cacao as a desirable alternative to banana and pineapple monoculture. © 2014, Universidad de Costa Rica. All rights reserved.

Kostelecky V.A.,Indiana University Bloomington | Tasson J.D.,St. Olaf College
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Limits on gravitational Čerenkov radiation by cosmic rays are obtained and used to constrain coefficients for Lorentz violation in the gravity sector associated with operators of even mass dimensions, including orientation-dependent effects. We use existing data from cosmic-ray telescopes to obtain conservative two-sided constraints on 80 distinct Lorentz-violating operators of dimensions four, six, and eight, along with conservative one-sided constraints on three others. Existing limits on the nine minimal operators at dimension four are improved by factors of up to a billion, while 74 of our explicit limits represent stringent first constraints on nonminimal operators. Prospects are discussed for future analyses incorporating effects of Lorentz violation in the matter sector, the role of gravitational Čerenkov radiation by high-energy photons, data from gravitational-wave observatories, the tired-light effect, and electromagnetic Čerenkov radiation by gravitons. © 2015 The Authors.

Efrati E.,James Franck Institute | Wang Z.,James Franck Institute | Kolan A.,James Franck Institute | Kolan A.,St. Olaf College | And 2 more authors.
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2014

This review compares the conceptualization and practice of early real-space renormalization group methods with the conceptualization of more recent real-space transformations based on tensor networks. For specificity, it focuses upon two basic methods: the "potential-moving" approach most used in the period 1975-1980 and the "rewiring method" as it has been developed in the last five years. The newer method, part of a development called the tensor renormalization group, was originally based on principles of quantum entanglement. It is specialized for computing approximations for tensor products constituting, for example, the free energy or the ground state energy of a large system. It can attack a wide variety of problems, including quantum problems, which would otherwise be intractable. The older method is formulated in terms of spin variables and permits a straightforward construction and analysis of fixed points in rather transparent terms. However, in the form described here it is unsystematic, offers no path for improvement, and of unknown reliability. The new method is formulated in terms of index variables which may be considered as linear combinations of the statistical variables. Free energies emerge naturally, but fixed points are more subtle. Further, physical interpretations of the index variables are often elusive due to a gauge symmetry which allows only selected combinations of tensor entries to have physical significance. In applications, both methods employ analyses with varying degrees of complexity. The complexity is parametrized by an integer called χ (or D in the recent literature). Both methods are examined in action by using them to compute fixed points related to Ising models for small values of the complexity parameter. They behave quite differently. The old method gives a reasonably good picture of the fixed point, as measured, for example, by the accuracy of the measured critical indices. This happens at low values of χ, but there is no known systematic way of getting more accurate results within the old method. In contrast, the rewiring method seems to work poorly in fixed point calculations at low χ. This stands in contrast to the known excellent performance of these newer methods in calculations of free energy, but not fixed points, at large values of χ. Speculations are offered with a particular eye to seeing the reasons why the results of these two approaches are so different. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Hanson R.M.,St. Olaf College
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2012

A graphical method originally developed by J. Willard Gibbs in relation to thermal equilibrium but never published is generalized to depict the eight thermodynamic quantities P, V, T, S, U, H, G, and A on the same graph and to depict chemical equilibrium. © 2012 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.

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