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De Pere, WI, United States

St. Norbert College is a private Catholic liberal arts college in De Pere, Wisconsin. Founded in October 1898 by Abbot Bernard Pennings, a Norbertine priest and educator, the school was named after Saint Norbert of Xanten. In 1952, the college became coeducational. The school currently enrolls about 2,160 students. Wikipedia.


Rosas-Valdez R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Choudhury A.,St. Norbert College | De Leon G.P.-P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Zoologica Scripta | Year: 2011

Partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genes were compared among populations of a widely distributed and morphologically uniform digenean species in North America, Phyllodistomum lacustri, a parasite characteristically associated with ictalurid catfishes. Specimens were collected from the urinary bladder of ictalurid hosts in six localities of North America, spanning most of the latitudinal range of this freshwater fish group. Sequences of other congeneric species, including a potentially close relative, P.staffordi, were also obtained and used for comparison. Analyses of both molecular markers show very low or no intrapopulation variation within each sampling site. However, samples of P.lacustri from different hosts and regions exhibit varying levels of interpopulation genetic differences. Such differences are explained by the wide geographical distribution and host range of the ictalurids they parasitize, particularly in ictalurids distributed in Mexican freshwaters where they experienced a diversification process. Variation in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes and phylogenetic analyses, in conjunction with geographical and host information (drainage isolation and endemicity of the host species), indicate that at least three populations show potential as cryptic species. © 2011 The Authors. Zoologica Scripta © 2011 The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Source


Bailey D.J.,St. Norbert College | Saldanha C.J.,American University of Washington
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2015

This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". In addition to their well-studied and crucial effects on brain development and aging, an increasing number of investigations across vertebrate species indicate that estrogens like 17β-estradiol (E2) have pronounced and rapid effects on cognitive function. The incidence and regulation of the E2-synthesizing enzyme aromatase at the synapse in regions of the brain responsible for learning, memory, social communication and other complex cognitive processes suggest that local E2 production and action affect the acute and chronic activity of individual neurons and circuits. Songbirds in particular are excellent models for the study of this "synaptocrine" hormone provision given that aromatase is abundantly expressed in neuronal soma, dendrites, and at the synapse across many brain regions in both sexes. Additionally, songbirds readily acquire and recall memories in laboratory settings, and their stereotyped behaviors may be manipulated and measured with relative ease. This leads to a rather unparalleled advantage in the use of these animals in studies of the role of neural aromatization in cognition. In this review we describe the results of a number of experiments in songbird species with a focus on the influence of synaptic E2 provision on two cognitive processes: auditory discrimination reliant on the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a telencephalic region likely homologous to the auditory cortex in mammals, and spatial memory dependent on the hippocampus. Data from these studies are providing evidence that the local and acute provision of E2 modulates the hormonal, electrical, and cognitive outputs of the vertebrate brain and aids in memory acquisition, retention, and perhaps the confluence of memory systems. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Braungart-Rieker J.M.,University of Notre Dame | Hill-Soderlund A.L.,St. Norbert College | Karrass J.,Vanderbilt University
Developmental Psychology | Year: 2010

Two goals guided this study: (a) describe changes in infant fear and anger reactivity from 4 to 16 months and (b) examine the degree to which infant temperament, attentional regulation, and maternal sensitivity predict reactivity trajectories. Participants included 143 mothers and infants (57% male) who visited the laboratory at 4, 8, 12, and 16 months. Infant reactivity, regulation, and maternal sensitivity were assessed from laboratory situations; infant temperament was rated by mothers on the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (Rothbart, 1981). Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that overall, fear and anger reactivity increased with age, but the rate of increase for fear slowed over time. Maternal ratings of temperamental fear and anger each predicted laboratory ratings of fear and anger reactivity, respectively. Moreover, infants who showed less regulation showed greater fear reactivity and steeper increases in anger reactivity over time. Infants whose mothers were more sensitive showed slower increases in fear reactivity. Findings from this study suggest that it is important to consider both intrinsic and extrinsic factors to gain a better understanding of the processes that may be involved in the development of emotional reactivity systems. © 2010 American Psychological Association. Source


Jones S.M.,Duke University | Jones S.M.,St. Norbert College | Brannon E.M.,Duke University
Frontiers in Psychology | Year: 2012

We directly tested the predictions of the approximate number system (ANS) and the object file system in the spontaneous numerical judgments of prosimian primates. Prior work indicates that when human infants and a few species of non-human animals are given a single-trial choice between two sequentially baited buckets they choose the bucket with the greater amount of food but only when the quantities are small. This pattern of results has been interpreted as evidence that a limited capacity object file system is used to track small numbers of objects and that the ANS is not invoked under these circumstances. Here we tested prosimian primates in food choice comparisons that were chosen to contrast predictions of the ANS and object file systems. We found that prosimian primates consis-tently chose the larger of two sets when they differed by a 1:3 ratio regardless of whether both values were small (<3), both values were large (>3), or there was one small and one large value. Prosimians were not able to robustly discriminate quantities that differed by a 1:2 ratio for the same three conditions, nor did they show a preference for small quantities that differed by a 2:3 ratio. These results implicate the ANS in the spontaneous numerical discriminations of non-human primates. © 2012 Jones and Brannon. Source


Scholz T.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Choudhury A.,St. Norbert College
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2014

Fish parasitology has a long tradition in North America and numerous parasitologists have contributed considerably to the current knowledge of the diversity and biology of protistan and metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes. The Journal of Parasitology has been essential in disseminating this knowledge and remains a significant contributor to our understanding of fish parasites in North America as well as more broadly at the international level. However, with a few exceptions, the importance of fish parasites has decreased during the last decades, which is reflected in the considerable decline of funding and corresponding decrease of attention paid to these parasites in Canada and the United States of America. After the 'golden age' in the second half of the 20th Century, fish parasitology in Canada and the United States went in a new direction, driven by technology and a shift in priorities. In contrast, fish parasitology in Mexico has undergone rapid development since the early 1990s, partly due to extensive international collaboration and governmental funding. A critical review of the current data on the parasites of freshwater fishes in North America has revealed considerable gaps in the knowledge of their species composition, host specificity, life cycles, evolution, phylogeography, and relationships with their fish hosts. As to the key question, "Why so neglected?" this is probably because: (1) fish parasites are not in the forefront due to their lesser economic importance; (2) there is little funding for this kind of research, especially if a practical application is not immediately apparent; and (3) of shifting interests and a shortage of key personalities to train a new generation (they switched to marine habitats or other fields). Some of the opportunities for future research are outlined, such as climate change and cryptic species diversity. A significant problem challenging future research seems to be the loss of trained and experienced fish parasitologists. This has 2 major ramifications: the loss of expertise in identifying organisms that other biologists (e.g., ecologists, molecular biologists, evolutionists) work with, and an incomplete comprehension of ecosystem structure and function in the face of climate change, emerging diseases, and loss of biodiversity. © American Society of Parasitologists 2014. Source

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