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Sault Ste. Marie, Canada

Alsrayheen E.,University of Calgary | Campbell B.,University of Calgary | McLeod E.,St. Marys University College | Rateick R.,Honeywell | Birss V.,University of Calgary
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2012

The ac/dc spark anodizing method has been used to form a protective oxide film on the Al-Cu alloy AA2219 in an alkaline silicate solution at 10 mA/cm 2. The composition of the anodizing bath is shown to have a crucial effect on the anodizing process and the oxide film characteristics. Various surface techniques showed that the oxide films are porous and consist of three main layers. In all solutions, the thickness of the outer layer increases with increasing silicate concentration and decreases with increasing solution pH. The degree of corrosion protection offered by the oxide layer has been investigated using linear sweep voltammetery in pH 7 borate buffer solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 0.86 M NaCl solution. Electrochemical studies show that there is a narrow range of anodization solution pH that is needed to achieve the most passive coating, and that the corrosion resistance increases with increasing bath silicate concentration. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Alsrayheen E.,University of Calgary | McLeod E.,University of Calgary | McLeod E.,St. Marys University College | Rateick Jr. R.,University of Calgary | And 3 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2011

An ac/dc spark anodization method was used to deposit an oxide film (6 ± 3 μm in thickness) on the Al-Cu alloy AA2219. The oxide films were formed at 10 mA/cm2 for 30 min in an alkaline silicate solution, showing three main stages of growth. Scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis revealed that the oxide films are not uniform and consist of three main layers, an inner Al-rich barrier layer (∼1 μm), an intermediate Al-Si mixed oxide layer (∼2 ± 1 μm), and an outer porous Si-rich layer (∼3 ± 3 μm). In addition, microscopic analysis showed that the Al2Cu intermetallics present in the alloy have not been excessively oxidized during the anodization process and thus are retained beneath the oxide film, as desired. The coating passivity and corrosion resistance, evaluated using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) in pH 7 borate buffer solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.86 M NaCl solution, respectively, were both significantly improved after spark-anodization. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Source

Madan V.,St. Marys University College
2nd International Conference on Computer Research and Development, ICCRD 2010 | Year: 2010

Probability represents a degree of belief or level of confidence we place in a hypothesis. The law of "karma" based on the cause and effect forms the integral part of the Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain philosophy. In statistics, Bayes' theorem was formulated two hundred years ago to re-evaluate probabilities when a new evidence for or against the hypothesis comes to light. Since we are contributing to karmas based on our actions good and bad deeds, our salvation or nirvana is being determined by the cumulative effects of good and bad karmas. This paper examines the status of salvation as we reincarnate into different lives doing good and bad karmas. A simple model for salvation shows that a person can achieve salvation or nirvana by continuing to do good karmas in eight consecutive lives. © 2010 IEEE. Source

Madan V.,St. Marys University College
ICCTD 2010 - 2010 2nd International Conference on Computer Technology and Development, Proceedings | Year: 2010

A mathematical model related with Bayes' theorem is used to determine the tenure status of faculty members using criteria such as teaching, research, professional development, committee assignments and community service. The tenure status is determined by scale factors assigned to different activities and accepted levels of cumulative achievements. © 2010 IEEE. Source

Grothman G.T.,St. Marys University College
Canadian Field-Naturalist | Year: 2011

Tardigrades are cosmopolitan animals with a patchy distribution record, largely due to the limited collection history for this phylum rather than actual rarity. Most Canadian records are from near coastal areas, with a few notable exceptions, most recently one study of tardigrades in central Alberta. The present study reports the occurrence of 12 species or species groups in Fish Creek Provincial Park in southern Alberta. Eight of these taxa are new records for Alberta, and two (Diphascon (Diphascon) granifer and Echiniscus granulatus) are new records for Canada. Source

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