Gaskin C.J.,Deakin University |
Lambert S.D.,McGill University |
Lambert S.D.,St Marys Research Center |
Bowe S.J.,Deakin University |
Orellana L.,Deakin University
BMC Medical Research Methodology | Year: 2017
Background: Sample selection can substantially affect the solutions generated using exploratory factor analysis. Validation studies of the 12-item World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) have generally involved samples in which substantial proportions of people had no, or minimal, disability. With the WHODAS 2.0 oriented towards measuring disability across six life domains (cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, life activities, and participation in society), performing factor analysis with samples of people with disability may be more appropriate. We determined the influence of the sampling strategy on (a) the number of factors extracted and (b) the factor structure of the WHODAS 2.0. Methods: Using data from adults aged 50+ from the six countries in Wave 1 of the WHO's longitudinal Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), we repeatedly selected samples (n = 750) using two strategies: (1) simple random sampling that reproduced nationally representative distributions of WHODAS 2.0 summary scores for each country (i.e., positively skewed distributions with many zero scores indicating the absence of disability), and (2) stratified random sampling with weights designed to obtain approximately symmetric distributions of summary scores for each country (i.e. predominantly including people with varying degrees of disability). Results: Samples with skewed distributions typically produced one-factor solutions, except for the two countries with the lowest percentages of zero scores, in which the majority of samples produced two factors. Samples with approximately symmetric distributions, generally produced two- or three-factor solutions. In the two-factor solutions, the getting along domain items loaded on one factor (commonly with a cognition domain item), with remaining items loading on a second factor. In the three-factor solutions, the getting along and self-care domain items loaded separately on two factors and three other domains (mobility, life activities, and participation in society) on the third factor; the cognition domain items did not load together on any factor. Conclusions: High percentages of participants with no disability (i.e., zero scores) produce heavily censored data (i.e., floor effects), limiting data heterogeneity and reducing the numbers of factors retained. The WHODAS 2.0 appears to have multiple closely-related factors. Samples of convenience and those collected for other purposes (e.g., general population surveys) would usually be inadequate for validating measures using exploratory factor analysis. © 2017 The Author(s).
PubMed | Level 11, Monash University, University of Melbourne and St Marys Research Center
Type: | Journal: International journal for equity in health | Year: 2016
Improving access to primary healthcare (PHC) for vulnerable populations is important for achieving health equity, yet this remains challenging. Evidence of effective interventions is rather limited and fragmented. We need to identify innovative ways to improve access to PHC for vulnerable populations, and to clarify which elements of health systems, organisations or services (supply-side dimensions of access) and abilities of patients or populations (demand-side dimensions of access) need to be strengthened to achieve transformative change. The work reported here was conducted as part of IMPACT (Innovative Models Promoting Access-to-Care Transformation), a 5-year Canadian-Australian research program aiming to identify, implement and trial best practice interventions to improve access to PHC for vulnerable populations. We undertook an environmental scan as a broad screening approach to identify the breadth of current innovations from the field.We distributed a brief online survey to an international audience of PHC researchers, practitioners, policy makers and stakeholders using a combined email and social media approach. Respondents were invited to describe a program, service, approach or model of care that they considered innovative in helping vulnerable populations to get access to PHC. We used descriptive statistics to characterise the innovations and conducted a qualitative framework analysis to further examine the text describing each innovation.Seven hundred forty-four responses were recorded over a 6-week period. 240 unique examples of innovations originating from 14 countries were described, the majority from Canada and Australia. Most interventions targeted a diversity of population groups, were government funded and delivered in a community health, General Practice or outreach clinic setting. Interventions were mainly focused on the health sector and directed at organisational and/or system level determinants of access (supply-side). Few innovations were developed to enhance patients or populations abilities to access services (demand-side), and rarely did initiatives target both supply- and demand-side determinants of access.A wide range of innovations improving access to PHC were identified. The access framework was useful in uncovering the disparity between supply- and demand-side dimensions and pinpointing areas which could benefit from further attention to close the equity gap for vulnerable populations in accessing PHC services that correspond to their needs.
PubMed | McGill University, St Marys Research Center, Center for Excellence in Aging Research Unit, University of Montréal and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical nursing research | Year: 2015
In this study on nursing documentation in long-term care facilities, a set of 9 delirium symptoms was used to evaluate the agreement between symptoms reported by nurses during monthly interviews and those documented in the nursing notes for the same 7-day observation period. Residents aged 65 and above (N = 280) were assessed monthly over a 6-month period for the presence of delirium and its symptoms using the Confusion Assessment Method. The proportion of symptoms documented in the nursing notes ranged from 1.9% to 53.5%. A trend toward a lower proportion of documented symptoms for higher resident-nurse ratios was observed, although the difference was not statistically significant. Efforts should be made to improve the situation by revisiting the content of academic and clinical training given to nurses in addition to exploring innovative ways to make nursing documentation more efficient and less time-consuming within the current context of nurses work overload.
McCusker J.,McGill University |
McCusker J.,St Marys Research Center |
Verdon J.,McGill University |
Vadeboncoeur A.,Montreal Institute of Cardiology |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2012
Objectives To develop and conduct a preliminary validation of selected subscales of an elder-friendly emergency department (ED) assessment tool. Design Content validation of tool by an international panel. Construct validation using care ratings of ED lead physicians and nurses. Setting Quebec, Canada. Participants The international panel comprised 34 clinicians, administrators, and researchers. The construct validation was based on a 2006 survey of ED lead physicians and nurses at all 103 EDs in the province, of whom 68 (66%) supplied complete data. Measurements The initial tool included five subscales: ED staffing, screening and assessment, discharge planning, community services, and care philosophy. Differences in subscale scores were examined according to ED size, and of these scores were correlated with care ratings made by lead physicians and nurses. Results The average scores for three subscales (ED staffing, discharge planning, and community services) varied according to ED size. After adjustment for ED size, three subscales (screening and assessment, discharge planning, and community services) were correlated with ED nurse or physician care ratings. A preliminary tool, taking into account all factors, is proposed. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence of the validity of three subscales of the proposed elder-friendly ED assessment tool. Results suggest that ED size should be considered in interpreting these subscales. Further evaluation and validation of the proposed tool will be needed to further its utility in helping to focus the quality improvement efforts of clinicians, managers, and administrators related to the care they provide older adults. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.
McCusker J.,McGill University |
McCusker J.,St Marys Research Center |
Vadeboncoeur A.,Montreal Institute of Cardiology |
Levesque J.-F.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec |
And 3 more authors.
Academic Emergency Medicine | Year: 2014
Objectives: The associations between emergency department (ED) crowding and patient outcomes have not been investigated comprehensively in different types of ED. The study objective was to examine the associations of changes over time in ED occupancy with patient outcomes in a sample of EDs that vary by size and location. A secondary objective was to explore whether the relationship between ED occupancy and patient outcomes differed by ED characteristics (size/type and medical and nursing staffing ratios). Methods: Using linked administrative databases, the authors constructed a cohort of 677,475 patients who visited one of 42 hospital EDs with complete data for 2005 on ED bed and waiting room occupancy. Crowding was measured with the relative occupancy ratio separately for ED bed and waiting room patients, defined as the ratio of ED occupancy on the day of the index ED visit to the average annual occupancy at that same ED. Multivariable logistic regression (adjusting for patient and ED characteristics) was used to analyze 30-day outcomes: mortality, return ED visits, and hospital admission at the first return ED visit. Results: After adjustment for ED and patient characteristics, a 10% increase in ED bed relative occupancy ratio was associated with 3% increases in death and hospital admission at a return visit. A 10% increase in ED waiting room crowding was associated with a small decrease in return visits. There was a stronger association between bed crowding and mortality among larger EDs. Conclusions: In Quebec EDs, increases in bed occupancy are associated with an increase in the rates of 30-day adverse outcomes, even after adjustment for patient and ED characteristics. The results raise important concerns about the quality of care during periods of ED crowding. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
PubMed | McGill University, St Marys Research Center and Montreal Behavioural Medicine Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: General hospital psychiatry | Year: 2015
The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of use of a depression self-care toolkit with and without lay telephone coaching among primary care patients 40 years and older with depressive symptoms and comorbid chronic physical conditions.A single blind, individually randomized, pragmatic trial of a depression self-care toolkit (Toolkit) with or without lay telephone coaching was conducted among primary care adults with depressive symptoms and comorbid chronic physical conditions. Eligible patients were randomized to receive the Toolkit with (intervention) or without (control) telephone coaching provided by trained lay coaches. The primary outcome was depression severity [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)] at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were self-efficacy, satisfaction, and use of health services at 6 months.A total of 223 patients were randomized, and 172 (77.1%) completed 6-month follow-ups. PHQ-9 scores improved significantly in both groups over the 6-month follow-up; the differences in PHQ-9 scores between intervention and control groups were statistically significant at 3 months [effect size = 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16-0.72] but not at 6 months (effect size = 0.24; 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.60). Patients with moderate depression severity (PHQ-9 10-19) and high self-efficacy at baseline were most likely to benefit from the intervention. There was no significant effect of the intervention on the secondary outcomes.The incremental value of lay telephone coaching of a Toolkit appears short-lived. Targeting of coaching to those with moderate depression severity may be indicated.
PubMed | McGill University and 2 St Marys Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie | Year: 2016
To explore the effects of baseline psychological and antidepressant medication treatment in a trial of lay telephone coaching in a low-intensity, supported depression self-care intervention.A single blind, individually randomised, pragmatic trial was conducted among primary care adults with chronic physical conditions and comorbid depressive symptoms. Eligible subjects were randomised to receive a depression self-care toolkit with (intervention group) or without (control group) telephone coaching provided by trained lay coaches. For this brief communication, a secondary analysis of the trial data focused on the effects of baseline psychological and antidepressant treatments on mental health outcomes (Patient Health Questionnaire 9 [PHQ-9], SF-12 Mental Component Summary [MCS], Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 [GAD-7]) and satisfaction with the intervention.In total, 223 patients were randomised, and 165 (74.0%) completed both 3- and 6-month follow-ups. There were 2 significant interactions of baseline treatment and study group for 6-month mental health outcomes. A significant benefit of coaching on 6-month PHQ-9 was seen only among participants who were not receiving baseline psychological treatment. A smaller interaction was found for baseline antidepressant medications and 6-month mental health. There was a significant main effect for baseline psychological treatment and lower 6-month satisfaction.Depressed patients receiving baseline psychological treatment may not benefit from lay coaching offered as part of a low-intensity depression self-care intervention.
PubMed | St Marys Hospital Center, McGill University and St Marys Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2015
To determine the frequency and baseline risk factors for partial and no recovery from delirium in older hospitalized adults.Cohort study with assessment of recovery status approximately 1 and 3 months after enrollment.University-affiliated, primary, acute-care hospital.Medical or surgical inpatients aged 65 and older with delirium (N = 278).The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Delirium Index (DI), and activities of daily living (ADLs) were completed at enrollment and each follow-up. Primary outcome categories were full recovery (absence of CAM core symptoms of delirium), partial recovery (presence of 1 CAM core symptoms but not meeting criteria for delirium), no recovery (met CAM criteria for delirium), or death. Secondary outcomes were changes in MMSE, DI, and ADL scores between the baseline and last assessment. Potential risk factors included many clinical and laboratory variables.In participants with dementia, frequencies of full, partial, and no recovery and death at first follow-up were 6.3%, 11.3%, 74.6%, and 7.7%, respectively; in participants without dementia, frequencies were 14.3%, 17%, 50.9%, and 17.9%, respectively. In participants with dementia, frequencies at the second follow-up were 7.9%, 15.1%, 57.6%, and 19.4%, respectively; in participants without dementia, frequencies were 19.2%, 20.2%, 31.7%, and 28.8%, respectively. Frequencies were similar in participants with prevalent and incident delirium and in medical and surgical participants. The DI, MMSE, and ADL scores of many participants with partial and no recovery improved. Independent baseline risk factors for delirium persistence were chart diagnosis of dementia (odds ratio (OR) = 2.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.38, 4.56), presence of any malignancy (OR = 5.79, 95% CI = 1.51, 22.19), and greater severity of delirium (OR =9.39, 95% CI = 3.95, 22.35).Delirium in many older hospitalized adults appears to be much more protracted than previously thought, especially in those with dementia, although delirium symptoms, cognition, and function improved in many participants with partial and no recovery. It may be important to monitor the longer-term course of delirium in older hospitalized adults and develop strategies to ensure full recovery.
Jang Y.,McGill University |
Lortie M.A.,St Marys Research Center |
Sanche S.,St Marys Research Center
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2014
Background: The use of electronic health records (EHR) in clinical settings is considered pivotal to a patient-centered health care delivery system. However, uncertainty in cost recovery from EHR investments remains a significant concern in primary care practices. Objective: Guided by the question of "When implemented in primary care practices, what will be the return on investment (ROI) from an EHR implementation?", the objectives of this study are two-fold: (1) to assess ROI from EHR in primary care practices and (2) to identify principal factors affecting the realization of positive ROI from EHR. We used a break-even point, that is, the time required to achieve cost recovery from an EHR investment, as an ROI indicator of an EHR investment. Methods: Given the complexity exhibited by most EHR implementation projects, this study adopted a retrospective mixed-method research approach, particularly a multiphase study design approach. For this study, data were collected from community-based primary care clinics using EHR systems. Results: We collected data from 17 primary care clinics using EHR systems. Our data show that the sampled primary care clinics recovered their EHR investments within an average period of 10 months (95% CI 6.2-17.4 months), seeing more patients with an average increase of 27% in the active-patients-to-clinician-FTE (full time equivalent) ratio and an average increase of 10% in the active-patients-to-clinical-support-staff-FTE ratio after an EHR implementation. Our analysis suggests, with a 95% confidence level, that the increase in the number of active patients (P=.006), the increase in the active-patients-to-clinician-FTE ratio (P<.001), and the increase in the clinic net revenue (P<.001) are positively associated with the EHR implementation, likely contributing substantially to an average break-even point of 10 months. Conclusions: We found that primary care clinics can realize a positive ROI with EHR. Our analysis of the variances in the time required to achieve cost recovery from EHR investments suggests that a positive ROI does not appear automatically upon implementing an EHR and that a clinic's ability to leverage EHR for process changes seems to play a role. Policies that provide support to help primary care practices successfully make EHR-enabled changes, such as support of clinic workflow optimization with an EHR system, could facilitate the realization of positive ROI from EHR in primary care practices.
PubMed | McGill University, University of Montréal and St Marys Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health education & behavior : the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education | Year: 2016
In a sample of primary care participants with chronic physical conditions and comorbid depressive symptoms: to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of activation and self-efficacy with demographic, physical and mental health status, health behaviors, depression self-care, health care utilization, and use of self-care tools; and to examine the effects of a depression self-care coaching intervention on these two outcomes. Design/Study Setting. A secondary analysis of activation and self-efficacy data collected as part of a randomized trial to compare the effects of a telephone-based coached depression self-care intervention with a noncoached intervention. Activation (Patient Activation Measure) was measured at baseline and 6 months. Depression self-care self-efficacy was assessed at baseline, at 3 months, and at 6 months.In multivariable cross-sectional analyses (n = 215), activation and/or self-efficacy were associated with language, birthplace, better physical and mental health, individual exercise, specialist visits, and antidepressant nonuse. In longitudinal analyses (n = 158), an increase in activation was associated with increased medication adherence; an increase in self-efficacy was associated with use of cognitive self-care strategies and increases in social and solitary activities. There were significant improvements from baseline to 6 months in activation and self-efficacy scores both among coached and noncoached groups. The self-care coaching intervention did not affect 6-month activation or self-efficacy but was associated with quicker improvement in self-efficacy.Overall, the results for activation and self-efficacy were similar, although self-efficacy correlated more consistently than activation with depression-specific behaviors and was responsive to a depression self-care coaching intervention.