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Bayside, NY, United States

Abbruzzese L.D.,Columbia University | Rao A.K.,Columbia University | Bellows R.,Spear Physical Therapy | Figueroa K.,The New School | And 3 more authors.
Gait and Posture | Year: 2014

This study examined the dual-task interference effects of complexity (simple vs. complex), type of task (carrying a pitcher vs. tray), and age (young adults vs. 7-10 year old children) on temporal-spatial and variability measures of gait. All participants first walked on the GAITRite® walkway without any concurrent task, followed by four dual-task gait conditions. The group of children had a more variable step length and step time than adults across all walking conditions. They also slowed down, took fewer, smaller steps and spent more time in double limb support than adults in the complex dual task conditions. Gait in healthy young adults and school aged children was relatively unaffected by concurrent performance of simple versions of the manual tasks. Our overall analysis suggests that dual-task gait in school aged children is still developing and has not yet reached adult capacity. This study also highlights the critical role of task demand and complexity in dual-task interference. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Burke S.A.,Childrens Specialized Hospital | Holson D.C.,Pediatric Center | Mast J.,Blythedale Childrens Hospital | Pelegano J.,Hospital for Special Care | And 3 more authors.
Hospital Pediatrics | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVES: After discharge from an acute care hospital, some children require ongoing care at a post-acute care hospital. Care transitions occur at both admission to the post-acute care hospital and again at discharge to the home/community. Our objective was to report the current practices used during the admission to and discharge from 7 pediatric post-acute care hospitals in the United States. METHODS: Participants from 7 pediatric post-acute care hospitals completed a survey and rated the frequency of use of 20 practices to prepare and support children and their families during both admission to the hospital and at time of discharge to the home/community. For consistency with existing literature, practices were grouped into 4 previously reported categories: assessment, communication, education, and logistics. Descriptive statistics were used to report the frequency of use within practices and between hospitals. RESULTS: Only 2 of 10 admission practices and 3 of 10 discharge practices were reportedly "always" used by all hospitals. Assessment and communication practices were reported to be more frequently used (57%-100% of the time) than education and logistic procedures. Between hospitals, only the reported frequency of use of the discharge practices was statistically significantly different (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Variability exists in transition practices among 7 post-acute care pediatric hospitals. This report is the first known to detail the frequency of use of admission and discharge practices for pediatric post-acute care hospitals in the United States. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source


Nehra D.,Harvard University | Carlson S.J.,Harvard University | Fallon E.M.,Harvard University | Kalish B.,Harvard University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background: Premature infants are at increased risk for metabolic bone disease, with resulting delayed bone growth, osteopenia, and rickets. Method: A systematic review of the best available evidence to answer a series of questions regarding neonatal patients at risk of metabolic bone disease receiving parenteral or enteral nutrition was undertaken and evaluated using concepts adopted from the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation working group. A consensus process was used to develop the clinical guideline recommendations prior to external and internal review and approval by the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Board of Directors. Questions: (1) What maternal risk factors predispose the neonate to metabolic bone disease? (2) What is the optimal type of feeding to promote neonatal bone health? (3) When and how should vitamin D supplements be administered? (4) Does parenteral nutrition (PN) predispose a neonate to metabolic bone disease, and if so, are there PN formulation recommendations to minimize this risk? © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Source


Fallon E.M.,Harvard University | Nehra D.,Harvard University | Potemkin A.K.,Harvard University | Gura K.M.,Childrens Hospital Boston | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most devastating diseases in the neonatal population, with extremely low birth weight and extremely preterm infants at greatest risk. Method: A systematic review of the best available evidence to answer a series of questions regarding nutrition support of neonates at risk of NEC was undertaken and evaluated using concepts adopted from the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation working group. A consensus process was used to develop the clinical guideline recommendations prior to external and internal review and approval by the A.S.P.E.N. Board of Directors. Results/Conclusions: (1) When and how should feeds be started in infants at high risk for NEC? We suggest that minimal enteral nutrition be initiated within the first 2 days of life and advanced by 30 mL/kg/d in infants ≤1000g. (Weak) (2) Does the provision of mother's milk reduce the risk of developing NEC? We suggest the exclusive use of mother's milk rather than bovine-based products or formula in infants at risk for NEC. (Weak) (3) Do probiotics reduce the risk of developing NEC? There are insufficient data to recommend the use of probiotics in infants at risk for NEC. (Further research needed.) (4) Do nutrients either prevent or predispose to the development of NEC? We do not recommend glutamine supplementation for infants at risk for NEC (Strong). There is insufficient evidence to recommend arginine and/or long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for infants at risk for NEC. (Further research needed.) (5) When should feeds be reintroduced to infants with NEC? There are insufficient data to make a recommendation regarding time to reintroduce feedings to infants after NEC. (Further research needed.) (JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2012;36:506-523). © 2012 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Source


Murch S.H.,Warwick Medical School | Allen K.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Chong S.,St. Marys Hospital for Children | Dias J.A.,Hospital St Joao | Papadopoulou A.,Athens Childrens Hospital
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES:: This review considers the potential for therapeutic advances in the management of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) based on recently increased understanding of the pathophysiology of the disorder. METHODS:: This is a review of publications characterising mucosal changes and leucocyte recruitment patterns in human and experimental EoE. RESULTS:: EoE, although diagnosed by epithelial infiltration of eosinophils, is actually a transmural inflammation in which eosinophil recruitment occurs via the deeper layers. Penetration of eosinophils into the epithelium is variable, explaining the need for multiple biopsies to diagnose what may be a clearly visible disorder. Fibrosis and neuromuscular dysfunction both occur within the subepithelial tissues. Recent murine studies have identified that T-cell recruitment underpins antigen-specific oesophageal eosinophil recruitment. Involvement of innate immunity is also suggested by the role of invariant natural killer T cells in experimental EoE. CONCLUSIONS:: Looking beyond present therapeutic options with a view to future studies, we identify T cells as candidates for "upstream therapy" if antigen specificity or homing markers are determined. Evidence of aeroallergen sensitisation suggests the possibility of lymphocyte priming within nasal-associated lymphoid tissue or Waldeyer ring, with the potential for topical therapy. We consider acquired neuromuscular dysfunction as a therapeutic target in acute symptomatic deterioration or bolus obstruction. We assess possible similarities with therapeutic stratagems for chronic asthma, recognising at the same time the anatomic specificity of the oesophagus and the difficulty in delivering effective topical medication to subepithelial tissues in this location compared with the airway. Copyright © 2013 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Source

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