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Krespi Y.P.,New Hill | Kizhner V.,St. Lukes Roosevelt Hospital
American Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2012

Objectives: Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) contribute to 25% of nosocomial infections, increasing complications, health care cost, and growing antibiotic resistance. Nasal decolonization (ND) can reduce the staphylococcal infection rate. A new method of laser therapy (LT) MRSA ND was tested. Study design: This is a prospective, nonrandomized study. Methods: Following institutional review board approvals, 25 patients colonized with MSSA/MRSA were allocated to 4 treatment arms; low-power, dual-wavelength 870-/930-nm laser alone (GR1); low-power, dual-wavelength laser followed by erythromycin (E-mycin) cream (GR2); low-power, dual-wavelength laser followed by peroxide irrigation (GR3); and high-power 940-nm laser alone (GR4). Quantitative cultures were obtained before and after in all arms. Laser therapy was performed via a laser fiber diffuser, delivering 200 to 600 J/cm2 to each naris circumferentially. Patient's distribution was 3 in GR1, 14 in GR2, 4 in GR3, and 4 in GR4 (last 10 recruited to GR4). Results: Nasal decolonization for GR1, GR2, GR3, and GR4 was 1 of 3, 13 of 14, 2 of 4, and 4 of 4, respectively. Because LT + E-mycin cleared all first 3 patients of MRSA and MSSA, all remaining patients were treated with LT + Er with over 90% of patients clearing. No adverse events or discomfort were reported. Conclusions: First human study using LT and topical E-mycin in ND is presented. Laser therapy can eradicate MRSA and potentially resensitization of bacteria to the antimicrobial effect of erythromycin. Although decolonization was maintained at 4 weeks posttreatment, further studies can determine the LT long-term effect. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Wei C.C.,St. Lukes Roosevelt Hospital | Adappa N.D.,University of Pennsylvania | Cohen N.A.,University of Pennsylvania
Laryngoscope | Year: 2013

Objectives/Hypothesis To determine whether the use of topical nasal therapies with saline alone and in combination with antibiotics, antifungals, or corticosteroids is effective in the treatment of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Data Sources A systematic literature search was performed utilizing the MEDLINE database (1966 to May 2012), EMBASE database (1980 to May 2012), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Review Methods Electronic databases were searched by three otolaryngologists. Studies on five major categories of topical nasal therapies searched included saline (hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic); topical antibiotics, topical steroids, and topical antifungals were obtained. Randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials were included. Results Sixteen randomized controlled trials were identified examining topical saline (hypertonic or isotonic) in CRS patients. Two randomized controlled trials were found studying the effect of topical antibiotics in patients with CRS. Four randomized controlled trials were identified studying topical antifungal treatment for CRS. Twenty-five randomized controlled trials were found studying topical steroids in CRS patients. Conclusion A high aggregate quality of evidence supports the effectiveness of saline irrigations in treating CRS. There is insufficient evidence to support a clear benefit of topical antibiotics in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Topical antifungal therapies have not been shown to be significantly different in efficacy than saline controls on CRS outcomes. Topical steroids are beneficial in the treatment of CRS with nasal polyps, but have not been shown to be effective in CRS without nasal polyps. Laryngoscope, 123:2347-2359, 2013 Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc. Source

Chekan E.,ETHICON,Inc. | Whelan R.L.,St. Lukes Roosevelt Hospital
Medical Devices: Evidence and Research | Year: 2014

The introduction of both new surgical devices and reengineered existing devices leads to modifications in the way traditional tasks are carried out and allows for the development of new surgical techniques. Each new device has benefits and limitations in regards to tissue interactions that, if known, allow for optimal use. However, most surgeons are unaware of these attributes and, therefore, new device introduction creates a “knowledge gap” that is potentially dangerous. The goal of this review is to present a framework for the study of device– tissue interactions and to initiate the process of “filling in” the knowledge gap via the available literature. Surgical staplers, which are continually being developed, are the focus of this piece. The integrity of the staple line, which depends on adequate tissue compression, is the primary factor in creating a stable anastomosis. This review focuses on published studies that evaluated the creation of stable anastomoses in bariatric, thoracic, and colorectal procedures. Understanding how staplers interact with target tissues is key to improving patient outcomes. It is clear from this review that each tissue type presents unique challenges. The thickness of each tissue varies as do the intrinsic biomechanical properties that determine the ideal compressive force and prefiring compression time for each tissue type. The correct staple height will vary depending on these tissue-specific properties and the tissue pathology. These studies reinforce the universal theme that compression, staple height, tissue thickness, tissue compressibility, and tissue type must all be considered by the surgeon prior to choosing a stapler and cartridge. The surgeon’s experience, therefore, is a critical factor. Educational programs need to be established to inform and update surgeons on the characteristics of each stapler. It is hoped that the framework presented in this review will facilitate this process. © 2014 Chekan and Whelan. Source

Suh L.K.,Columbia University | Lowe F.C.,St. Lukes Roosevelt Hospital
Current Urology Reports | Year: 2011

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent disease for which there is no standardized therapy. Traditional treatments have included antibiotics, α-blockers, and anti-inflammatories, but those have not proven to be efficacious therapies through many clinical trials. Alternative therapies, such as phytotherapy, acupuncture, and pelvic floor physical therapy, have grown in popularity for the treatment of CP/CPPS. As clinicians continue to explore these alternative therapies, there is an accumulation of strong evidence demonstrating the success of these alternative therapies. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Min J.K.,Cornell University | Lin F.Y.,Cornell University | Gidseg D.S.,Cornell University | Weinsaft J.W.,Cornell University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2010

Objectives: This study identified the incidence and predictors of conversion of a normal to abnormal coronary artery calcium (CAC) scan during serial CAC scanning over 5 years. Background: Although a normal CAC scan signifies absence of significant atherosclerosis and is used to identify individuals at low clinical risk, the "warranty period" of a normal CAC scan relative to its ability to predict sustained absence of coronary atherosclerosis remains unknown. Methods: We assessed frequency of and time to progression, as well as proportional increase of CAC in 422 individuals with normal CAC scan (CAC = 0) undergoing annual CAC scanning for 5 years. Results were compared with those of a referent cohort of 621 individuals with baseline CAC scan (CAC >0). Results: A total of 106 (25.1%) patients with CAC = 0 developed CAC during follow-up at a mean time to conversion of 4.1 ± 0.9 years. Incidence of conversion to CAC >0 was nonlinear and was highest in the fifth year. In multivariable analysis, progression to CAC >0 was associated with age, diabetes, and smoking (p < 0.01 for all). Among the 621 individuals with baseline CAC >0, only the presence of CAC itself, rather than CAD risk factors, was predictive of CAC progression. Among propensity score-matched individuals with CAC >0 versus CAC = 0, baseline CAC >0 emerged as the strongest predictor of CAC progression (hazard ratio [HR]: 12.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.31 to 16.77), followed by diabetes (HR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.47 to 2.90) and smoking (HR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.63, p < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Among individuals with CAC = 0, conversion to CAC >0 is nonlinear and occurs at low frequency before 4 years. No clinical factor seems to mandate earlier repeat CAC scanning. © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

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