Silverberg J.I.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital |
Hanifin J.,Oregon Health And Science University |
Simpson E.L.,Oregon Health And Science University
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2013
Atopic dermatitis (AD, also known as atopic eczema) is driven by a complex relationship between genetic predisposition and environmental exposures. We sought to determine the impact of specific climatic factors on the prevalence of AD in the United states. We used a merged analysis of the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) from a representative sample of 91,642 children aged 0-17 years and the 2006-2007 National Climate Data Center and Weather Service measurements of relative humidity (%), indoor heating degree days (HDD), clear-sky UV indices, ozone levels, and outdoor air temperature. As a proxy for AD, we used an affirmative response to the NSCH survey question asking whether the participant's child has been given a doctor diagnosis of "eczema or any other kind of skin allergy" in the previous 12 months. In multivariate models controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, age, and household income, eczema prevalence was significantly lower with the highest-quartile mean annual relative humidity (logistic regression, adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=0.82 (0.71-0.96), P=0.01) and issued UV index (0.73 (0.64-0.84), P<0.0001), and with two other factors associated with increased UV exposure. Eczema prevalence was decreased with the highest-quartile air temperature (0.80 (0.70-0.92), P=0.002) but increased with third-quartile mean annual HDD (1.26 (1.11-1.43), P=0.0003). This study provides evidence of climate influences on the US prevalence of childhood eczema. © 2013 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.
Bangalore S.,New York University |
Gong Y.,University of Florida |
Cooper-Dehoff R.M.,University of Florida |
Pepine C.J.,University of Florida |
Messerli F.H.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Eighth Joint National Committee panel recommendations for management of high blood pressure (BP) recommend a systolic BP threshold for initiation of drug therapy and a therapeutic target of <150 mm Hg in those ≥60 years of age, a departure from prior recommendations of <140 mm Hg. However, it is not known whether this is an optimal choice, especially for the large population with coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate optimal BP in patients ≥60 years of age. METHODS: Patients 60 years of age or older with CAD and baseline systolic BP >150 mm Hg randomized to a treatment strategy on the basis of either atenolol/ hydrochlorothiazide or verapamil-SR (sustained release)/trandolapril in INVEST (INternational VErapamil SR Trandolapril STudy) were categorized into 3 groups on the basis of achieved on-treatment systolic BP: group 1, <140 mm Hg; group 2, 140 to <150 mm Hg; and group 3, ≥150 mm Hg. Primary outcome was first occurrence of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or nonfatal stroke. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, total MI, nonfatal MI, total stroke, nonfatal stroke, heart failure, or revascularization, tabulated separately. Outcomes for each group were compared in unadjusted and multiple propensity score-adjusted models. RESULTS: Among 8,354 patients included in this analysis with an accumulated 22,308 patient-years of follow-up, 4,787 (57%) achieved systolic BP of <140 mm Hg (group 1), 1,747 (21%) achieved systolic BP of 140 to <150 mm Hg (group 2), and 1,820 (22%) achieved systolic BP of ≥150 mm Hg (group 3). In unadjusted models, group 1 had the lowest rates of the primary outcome (9.36% vs. 12.71% vs. 21.32%; p < 0.0001), all-cause mortality (7.92% vs. 10.07% vs. 16.81%; p < 0.0001), cardiovascular mortality (3.26% vs. 4.58% vs. 7.80%; p < 0.0001), MI (1.07% vs. 1.03% vs. 2.91%; p < 0.0001), total stroke (1.19% vs. 2.63% vs. 3.85%; p <0.0001), and nonfatal stroke (0.86% vs 1.89% vs 2.86%; p<0.0001) compared with groups 2 and 3, respectively. In multiple propensity score-adjusted models, compared with the reference group of <140 mm Hg (group 1), the risk of cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 1.77; p = 0.04), total stroke (adjusted HR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.82; p = 0.002) and nonfatal stroke (adjusted HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.72; p = 0.03) was increased in the group with BP of 140 to <150 mm Hg, whereas the risk of primary outcome, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, total MI, nonfatal MI, total stroke, and nonfatal stroke was increased in the group with BP ≥150 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: In hypertensive patients with CAD who are ≥60 years of age, achieving a BP target of 140 to <150 mm Hg as recommended by the JNC-8 panel was associated with less benefit than the previously recommended target of <140 mm Hg. © 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Silverberg J.I.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital |
Silverberg N.B.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital |
Lee-Wong M.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2012
Background Obesity in early childhood is associated with increased risk for and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective To determine whether obesity in adulthood is associated with risk of AD. Methods This was a retrospective case-control study of 2090 adults using questionnaire, height and weight, and skin-prick testing between January 1994 and December 2003. Results Obesity in adults was associated with increased AD [multinomial logistic regression: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·08-1·89; P = 0·01], but not nonatopic dermatitis (aOR 0·59, 95% CI 0·21-1·68; P = 0·32). Obesity was also associated with increased atopic asthma (aOR 1·98, 95% CI 1·47-2·66, P < 0·0001), but not associated with nonatopic asthma (P = 0·20), atopic or nonatopic rhinoconjunctivitis (P = 0·08 and 0·31, respectively), food allergies (P = 0·67 and 0·35, respectively) or atopy (P = 0·40). The association between obesity and AD remained significant even when controlling for history of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and food allergies (aOR 1·40, 95% CI 1·05-1·86; P = 0·02) or in subset analyses of subjects with AD alone (aOR 1·96, 95% CI 1·02-3·75; P = 0·04) and with comorbid asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and/or food allergies (aOR 1·40, 95% CI 1·03-1·91; P = 0·03). Conclusion Obesity in adulthood is associated with AD. Further studies are warranted to determine if weight loss may prevent or mitigate AD in adults. © 2011 The Authors BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.
St-Onge M.-P.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital |
Gallagher D.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital
Nutrition | Year: 2010
It has been well documented that as individuals age, body composition changes, even in the absence of changes in body weight. Studies have shown that fat mass increases and muscle mass decreases with age. However, it is unclear why such changes occur. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and substrate oxidation rates have been examined with aging. It has been proposed that reductions in RMR and fat oxidation may lead to changes in body composition. Alternatively, changes in body composition with aging may lead to reductions in RMR. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the literature surrounding the impact of aging on RMR and substrate oxidation. Although long-term longitudinal studies are lacking, most cross-sectional studies or short-term longitudinal studies show a reduction in RMR with aging that cannot be explained by changes in body composition including loss in fat-free mass, where the latter includes atrophy or decreases in the mass of high metabolic rate organs. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the metabolic rate of individual organs is lower in older compared with younger individuals. With aging, we conclude that reductions in the mass of individual organs/tissues and in tissue-specific organ metabolic rate contribute to a reduction in RMR that in turn promotes changes in body composition favoring increased fat mass and reduced fat-free mass. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alexis A.F.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital |
Alexis A.F.,Columbia University
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2013
Ethnic skin or 'skin of colour', which is characterized by increased epidermal melanin, labile melanocytes and reactive fibroblast responses, poses special challenges for the use of laser and light-based therapies. These therapies are associated with a greater risk of dyspigmentation and scarring in ethnic skin and therefore require careful selection of device and treatment parameters to minimize complications. Whereas early-generation lasers for hair removal and resurfacing were generally contraindicated for individuals with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes (SPT) IV-VI, advances in the past decade have given rise to a range of devices that can be safely used in ethnic skin. Longer wavelength lasers such as the 810 and 1064 nm Nd:YAG; intense pulsed light and monochromatic excimer light (308 nm); fractional lasers; and radiofrequency devices have all been used safely for hair removal, pigmentary abnormalities, resurfacing and skin tightening in ethnic skin, respectively. Notwithstanding these advances, nuances in the laser or light treatment of darker skin types remain and must be considered to ensure safe therapeutic outcomes. The vast majority of published data pertaining to lasers and light treatments in nonwhite skin involve patients of East Asian ethnicity (e.g. Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Thai). By contrast, there is a paucity of studies involving individuals of African ancestry or those with SPT V or VI. This article will review laser and light-based modalities that are considered safe and effective for individuals with richly pigmented skin. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.
St-Onge M.-P.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital |
St-Onge M.-P.,Columbia University
Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine | Year: 2013
Short sleep duration and obesity are common occurrence in today's society. An extensive literature from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies shows a relationship between short sleep and prevalence of obesity and weight gain. However, causality cannot be inferred from such studies. Clinical intervention studies have examined whether reducing sleep in normal sleepers, typically sleeping 7-9 h/night, can affect energy intake, energy expenditure, and endocrine regulators of energy balance. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies that have assessed food intake, energy expenditure, and leptin and ghrelin levels after periods of restricted and normal sleep. Most studies support the notion that restricting sleep increases food intake, but the effects on energy expenditure are mixed. Differences in methodology and component of energy expenditure analyzed may account for the discrepancies. Studies examining the effects of sleep on leptin and ghrelin have provided confl icting results with increased, reduced, or unchanged leptin and ghrelin levels after restricted sleep compared to normal sleep. Energy balance of study participants and potential sex differences may account for the varied results. Studies should strive for constant energy balance and feeding schedules when assessing the role of sleep on hormonal profi le. Although studies suggest that restricting sleep may lead to weight gain via increased food intake, research is needed to examine the impact on energy expenditure and endocrine controls. Also, studies have been of short duration, and there is little knowledge on the reverse question: does increasing sleep duration in short sleepers lead to negative energy balance?
Silverberg J.I.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital |
Silverberg N.B.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital
Pediatric Dermatology | Year: 2014
Vitiligo significantly affects quality of life (QOL) in adults, but little is known about the effect on QOL of pediatric vitiligo and whether the extent, distribution, and duration of vitiligo are associated with QOL. We performed an online parental questionnaire-based study (N = 350) regarding children ages 0 to 17 years with vitiligo, including validated questions about body surface area (BSA), distribution, and age of onset of vitiligo, associated symptoms, and QOL using the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI). Vitiligo negatively affected numerous aspects of and total CDLQI score (median 3.0, interquartile range 5.0). Their vitiligo lesions did not bother only 4.1% of teenagers ages 15 to 17 years, versus 45.6% of children ages 0 to 6 years and 50.0% of those ages 7 to 14 years (p < 0.001). There was no association between the child's age and whether the child's vitiligo bothered the parents (p = 0.27). The most bothersome sites of vitiligo lesions for children and parents were the face (25.6% and 37.4%, respectively) and legs (26.2% and 26.2%, respectively). Eighty-two patients (30.1%) reported itching and painful skin within the past week. Using multivariate ordinal logistic regression models, it was found that an affected BSA of more than 25% was associated with self-consciousness, difficulty with friendships and schoolwork, and teasing and bullying. Lesions on the face and arms were associated with teasing and bullying. The extent of vitiligo is associated with QOL impairment in children and adolescents, especially self-consciousness, but also bullying and teasing. Different distributions of vitiligo lesions are associated with different aspects of QOL impairment. Teenagers ages 15 to 17 years seem to experience the most self-consciousness of all pediatric age groups. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
O'Keeffe M.,St lukeS roosevelt Hospital |
St-Onge M.-P.,Columbia University
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2013
Humans have an innate requirement for sleep that is intrinsically governed by circadian and endocrine systems. More recently, reduced sleep duration has gained significant attention for its possible contribution to metabolic dysfunction. Significant evidence suggests that reduced sleep duration may elevate the risk for impaired glucose functioning, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, to date, few studies have determined the implications of reduced sleep duration with regard to glucose control during pregnancy. With the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of reproductive age, the occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing. GDM results in elevated risk of maternal and fetal complications, as well as increased risk of type 2 diabetes postpartum. Infants born to women with GDM also carry a life-long risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The impact of reduced sleep on glucose management during pregnancy has not yet been fully assessed and a paucity of literature currently exits. Herein, we review the association between reduced sleep and impaired carbohydrate metabolism and propose how reduced sleep during pregnancy may result in further dysfunction of the carbohydrate axis. A particular focus will be given to sleep-disordered breathing, as well as GDM-complicated pregnancies. Putative mechanisms of action by which reduced sleep may adversely affect maternal and infant outcomes are also discussed. Finally, we will outline important research questions that need to be addressed. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Blei F.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital
Lymphatic Research and Biology | Year: 2011
Lymphangiomatosis is a general term for excessive growth of aberrant lymphatic vessels. The impact of lymphangiomatosis can be devastating due to osteolysis and/or multi-organ involvement. The disorders are heterogeneous, and treatment is dependent upon disease location and symptoms. Most reports are single cases or small case series, predominantly in the orthopedic and radiologic literature. Basic research focused on lymphatic disorders may translate into new therapies for these disorders. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Rozanski A.,St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital |
Gransar H.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center |
Hayes S.W.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center |
Min J.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013
Objectives: This study sought to assess whether the frequency of inducible myocardial ischemia during stress-rest single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has changed over time. Background: The prevalence of cardiac death and other clinical cardiac events have declined in recent decades, but heretofore no study has examined if there has been a temporal change in the frequency of inducible myocardial ischemia during cardiac stress testing. Methods: We assessed 39,515 diagnostic patients undergoing stress-rest MPI between 1991 and 2009. Patients were assessed for change in demographics, clinical symptoms, risk factors, and frequency of abnormal and ischemic SPECT-MPI. Results: There was a marked progressive decline in the prevalence of abnormal SPECT studies, from 40.9% in 1991 to 8.7% in 2009 (p < 0.001). Similarly, the prevalence of ischemic SPECT-MPI declined, from 29.6% to 5.0% (p < 0.001), as did the prevalence of severe ischemia. The decline of SPECT-MPI abnormality occurred among all age and symptom subgroups, falling to only 2.9% among recent exercising patients without typical angina. We also noted a progressive trend toward performing more pharmacological rather than exercise stress in all age and weight groups, and pharmacological stress was more likely than exercise to be associated with SPECT-MPI abnormality (odds ratio: 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 1.5; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Over the past 2 decades, the frequency and severity of abnormal stress SPECT-MPI studies has progressively decreased. Notably, the frequency of abnormal SPECT-MPI is now very low among exercising patients without typical angina. These findings suggest the need for developing more cost-effective strategies for the initial work-up of patients who are presently at low risk for manifesting inducible myocardial ischemia during cardiac imaging procedures. © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation.