St. Kitts, Saint Kitts and Nevis
St. Kitts, Saint Kitts and Nevis

Time filter

Source Type

PubMed | Illumina, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Indiana University Bloomington, Polish Academy of Sciences and 21 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome research | Year: 2015

We describe a genome reference of the African green monkey or vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops). This member of the Old World monkey (OWM) superfamily is uniquely valuable for genetic investigations of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), for which it is the most abundant natural host species, and of a wide range of health-related phenotypes assessed in Caribbean vervets (C. a. sabaeus), whose numbers have expanded dramatically since Europeans introduced small numbers of their ancestors from West Africa during the colonial era. We use the reference to characterize the genomic relationship between vervets and other primates, the intra-generic phylogeny of vervet subspecies, and genome-wide structural variations of a pedigreed C. a. sabaeus population. Through comparative analyses with human and rhesus macaque, we characterize at high resolution the unique chromosomal fission events that differentiate the vervets and their close relatives from most other catarrhine primates, in whom karyotype is highly conserved. We also provide a summary of transposable elements and contrast these with the rhesus macaque and human. Analysis of sequenced genomes representing each of the main vervet subspecies supports previously hypothesized relationships between these populations, which range across most of sub-Saharan Africa, while uncovering high levels of genetic diversity within each. Sequence-based analyses of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms reveal extremely low diversity in Caribbean C. a. sabaeus vervets, compared to vervets from putatively ancestral West African regions. In the C. a. sabaeus research population, we discover the first structural variations that are, in some cases, predicted to have a deleterious effect; future studies will determine the phenotypic impact of these variations.


Turner T.R.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Cramer J.D.,Charles University | Nisbett A.,St Kitts Biomedical Research Foundation | Patrick Gray J.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Primates | Year: 2016

Weight and 34 morphological measurements were obtained from 103 vervet monkeys living either in the wild or in captive colonies derived from the wild populations on the island of St. Kitts in the Eastern Caribbean. All measures were taken during the same week, eliminating bias that might result from changing seasonal environmental conditions. Vervets on St. Kitts are all descended from a small number of individuals brought to the island approximately 400 years ago from West Africa, thus eliminating bias that might result from subspecific size differences. We conducted a principal components analysis (PCA) and compared individual traits between captive and wild adult animals. Morphological measures such as body, arm, and leg length did not differ significantly between animals living in the wild and animals in captivity. Weight and measures indicating condition-including body mass index (BMI), chest, thigh, and upper arm girth were all higher for animals living in captivity. More consistent available food is probably the cause of differences in measures reflecting condition. © 2016 Japan Monkey Centre and Springer Japan


Sidman R.L.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Li J.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Lawrence M.,Rxgen, Inc. | Lawrence M.,St Kitts Biomedical Research Foundation | And 7 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2015

Blood vessel growth from preexisting vessels (angiogenesis) underlies many severe diseases including major blinding retinal diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and aged macular degeneration (AMD). This observation has driven development of antibody inhibitors that block a central factor in AMD, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), from binding to its receptors VEGFR-1 and mainly VEGFR-2. However, some patients are insensitive to current anti-VEGF drugs or develop resistance, and the required repeated intravitreal injection of these large molecules is costly and clinically problematic. We have evaluated a small cyclic retro-inverted peptidomimetic, D(Cys-Leu-Pro-Arg-Cys) [D(CLPRC)], and hereafter named Vasotide, that inhibits retinal angiogenesis by binding selectively to the VEGF receptors VEGFR-1 and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). Delivery of Vasotide via either eye drops or intraperitoneal injection in a laser-induced monkey model of human wet AMD, a mouse genetic knockout model of the AMD subtype called retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), and a mouse oxygen-induced model of ROP decreased retinal angiogenesis in all three animal models. This prototype drug candidate is a promising new dual receptor inhibitor of the VEGF ligand with potential for translation into safer, less-invasive applications to combat pathological angiogenesis in retinal disorders.


PubMed | St Kitts Biomedical Research Foundation, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee and Charles University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Primates; journal of primatology | Year: 2016

Weight and 34 morphological measurements were obtained from 103 vervet monkeys living either in the wild or in captive colonies derived from the wild populations on the island of St. Kitts in the Eastern Caribbean. All measures were taken during the same week, eliminating bias that might result from changing seasonal environmental conditions. Vervets on St. Kitts are all descended from a small number of individuals brought to the island approximately 400years ago from West Africa, thus eliminating bias that might result from subspecific size differences. We conducted a principal components analysis (PCA) and compared individual traits between captive and wild adult animals. Morphological measures such as body, arm, and leg length did not differ significantly between animals living in the wild and animals in captivity. Weight and measures indicating condition-including body mass index (BMI), chest, thigh, and upper arm girth were all higher for animals living in captivity. More consistent available food is probably the cause of differences in measures reflecting condition.


McEntire C.R.S.,Yale University | Choudhury G.R.,Southwest Research Institute | Torres A.,Southwest Research Institute | Steinberg G.K.,Stanford University | And 3 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2016

Background and Purpose-Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of upper extremity motor impairments. Although several well-characterized experimental stroke models exist, modeling of upper extremity motor impairments, which are unique to primates, is not well established. Cortical representation of dexterous movements in nonhuman primates is functionally and topographically similar to that in humans. In this study, we characterize the African green monkey model of focal ischemia reperfusion with a defined syndrome, impaired dexterous movements. Methods-Cerebral ischemia was induced by transient occlusion of the M3 segment of the left middle cerebral artery. Motor and cognitive functions after stroke were evaluated using the object retrieval task with barrier-detour. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology were performed to map and characterize the infarct. Results-The middle cerebral artery occlusion consistently produced a necrotic infarct localized in the sensorimotor cortex in the middle cerebral artery territory. The infarction was reproducible and resulted in significant loss of fine motor function characterized by impaired dexterity. No significant cognitive impairment was detected. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology demonstrated consistent and significant loss of tissue on the left parietal cortex by the central sulcus covering the sensorimotor area. The results suggest that this species has less collateralization, which closely resembles humans. Conclusions-The reported nonhuman primate model produces a defined and reproducible syndrome relevant to our understanding of ischemic stroke, cortical representation, and sensorimotor integration controlling dexterous movements. This model will be useful in basic and translational research addressing loss of arm function and dexterity. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.


Hurley P.J.,Yale University | Elsworth J.D.,Yale University | Whittaker M.C.,St Kitts Biomedical Research Foundation | Roth R.H.,Yale University | Redmond Jr. D.E.,Yale University
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2011

Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the natural aging process share a number of biochemical mechanisms, including reduced function of dopaminergic systems. The present study aims to determine the extent that motor and behavioral changes in aged monkeys resemble parkinsonism induced by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. The behavioral and physiological changes in PD are believed to result largely from selective depletion of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system. In the present study, ten aged female monkeys were compared with three groups: 9 untreated young adult female monkeys, 10 young adult male monkeys and 13 older male monkeys that had been exposed to MPTP. Trained observers, blind as to age and drug condition and without knowledge of the hypotheses, scored the monkeys using the Parkinson's factor score (Parkscore), which has been validated by a high correlation with post mortem striatal dopamine (DA) concentrations. The aged animals had higher scores on the Parkscore compared with the young adults, with most of its component behavioral items showing significance (tremor, Eating Problems, Delayed initiation of movement, and Poverty of Movement). l-Dopa and DA-agonists did not clearly reverse the principal measure of parkinsonism. DA concentrations post mortem were 63% lower in 3 aged monkeys in the ventral putamen compared with 4 young adults, with greater reductions in putamen than in caudate (45%). We conclude that aged monkeys, unexposed to MPTP, show a similar profile of parkinsonism to that seen after the neurotoxin exposure to MPTP in young adult monkeys. The pattern of greater DA depletion in putamen than in caudate in aged monkeys is the same as in human Parkinson's disease and contrasts with the greater depletion in caudate seen after MPTP. Aged monkeys of this species reflect many facets of Parkinson's disease, but like older humans do not improve with standard dopamine replacement pharmacotherapies. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Redmond D.E.,St Kitts Biomedical Research Foundation | Redmond D.E.,Yale University | Evans L.,St Kitts Biomedical Research Foundation
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2012

Ultrasound assessments of fetal growth have been used in other species of primates to estimate fetal age, but there are no published morphometrics for the St. Kitts green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus), a species that has been important for studies of transplantation of fetal tissue into the brain as potential treatment for degenerative disease. Previous studies with other primate species have used relatively small numbers of pregnancies, measured repeatedly, to derive regressions for predicting fetal age from ultrasound studies. The present study derives data from 967 pregnancies, collected over a 9-year period, for predicting fetal age from ultrasound measurements of crown rump length, biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length in the St. Kitts green monkey. Linear and polynomial regressions were determined from pregnancies dated from a 3- to 4-day breeding period and confirmed in a second, independent group of pregnant monkeys with more extended breeding times to determine their accuracy for predicting fetal age. Although similar to morphometrics reported in other monkey species, there were some significant differences. These data will improve the estimates of fetal ages in previously published studies of St. Kitts green monkeys and provide more precise estimates of fetal age in studies of fetal development, genomics, and reproductive toxicology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Liddie S.,St Kitts Biomedical Research Foundation | Goody R.J.,Rxgen, Inc. | Valles R.,St Kitts Biomedical Research Foundation | Lawrence M.S.,Rxgen, Inc.
Journal of Medical Primatology | Year: 2010

Background Hematology and clinical chemistry (HCC) reference values are critical in veterinary practice and in vivo pre-clinical research, enabling detection of health abnormalities, response to therapeutic intervention or adverse toxicological effects, as well as monitoring of clinical management.Methods In this report, reference ranges for 46 HCC parameters were characterized in 331 wild-caught and colony-bred African green monkeys. Effects of sex, weight and duration of captivity were determined by one-way analysis of variance.Results Significant sex differences were observed for several HCC parameters. Significant differences were also observed for select HCC variables between newly caught animals and those held in captivity for 1-12months or longer.Conclusions Comparison of this data with other non-human primate species and humans highlights similarities and disparities between species. Potential causes of interpopulation variability and relevance to the use of the African green monkey as a non-human primate model are discussed. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, University of Texas at San Antonio, Ross University School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Virus research | Year: 2017

During 2014-2015, 270 fecal samples were collected from non-diarrheic, captive and wild African green monkeys (AGMs) on the island of St. Kitts, Caribbean region. By RNA-PAGE, picobirnaviruses (PBVs) were detected in sixteen captive AGMs. By RT-PCR and sequencing of partial gene segment-2, PBVs in 15 of these 16 samples were assigned to genogroup-I. The full-length nucleotide (nt) sequence of gene segment-2 of one of the genogroup-I PBV strains, strain PBV/African green monkey/KNA/016593/2015, was obtained using a non-specific primer-based amplification method with modifications. Gene segment-2 of strain 016593 was 1707bp long, and encoded a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of 538 aa. Furthermore, the nearly complete gene segment-2 sequences of three other AGM PBV strains were determined using primers designed from gene segment-2 sequence of 016593. The gene segment-2 of the 4 AGM PBV strains were almost identical to each other, and exhibited a high degree of genetic diversity (maximum nt and deduced aa sequence identities of 66.4% and 65.3%, respectively) with those of PBVs from other host species. The 5- and 3- (except for one mismatch) end nt sequences and the three domains of RdRps were retained in the AGM PBV strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report on detection, and molecular characterization of complete gene segment-2 of PBVs in vervet monkeys. PBVs were detected for the first time from the Caribbean region.


PubMed | St Kitts Biomedical Research Foundation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of primatology | Year: 2012

Ultrasound assessments of fetal growth have been used in other species of primates to estimate fetal age, but there are no published morphometrics for the St. Kitts green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus), a species that has been important for studies of transplantation of fetal tissue into the brain as potential treatment for degenerative disease. Previous studies with other primate species have used relatively small numbers of pregnancies, measured repeatedly, to derive regressions for predicting fetal age from ultrasound studies. The present study derives data from 967 pregnancies, collected over a 9-year period, for predicting fetal age from ultrasound measurements of crown rump length, biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length in the St. Kitts green monkey. Linear and polynomial regressions were determined from pregnancies dated from a 3- to 4-day breeding period and confirmed in a second, independent group of pregnant monkeys with more extended breeding times to determine their accuracy for predicting fetal age. Although similar to morphometrics reported in other monkey species, there were some significant differences. These data will improve the estimates of fetal ages in previously published studies of St. Kitts green monkeys and provide more precise estimates of fetal age in studies of fetal development, genomics, and reproductive toxicology.

Loading St Kitts Biomedical Research Foundation collaborators
Loading St Kitts Biomedical Research Foundation collaborators