Kanneganti T.-D.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital
Nature Reviews Immunology | Year: 2010
The immune response to viral infections is determined by a complex interplay between the pathogen and the host. Innate immune cells express a set of cytosolic sensors to detect viral infection. Recognition by these sensors induces the production of type I interferons and the assembly of inflammasome complexes that activate caspase-1, leading to production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Here, I discuss recent progress in our understanding of the central roles of NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and inflammasomes in the immune response during viral infections. This information will improve our understanding of host defence mechanisms against viruses and provide new avenues for interfering in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source
McKinnon P.J.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital
Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease | Year: 2012
Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) results from inactivation of the ATM protein kinase. DNA-damage signaling is a prime function of this kinase, although other roles have been ascribed to ATM. Identifying the primary ATM function(s) for tissue homeostasis is key to understanding how these functions contribute to the prevention of A-T-related pathology. In this regard, because A-T is primarily a neurodegenerative disease, it is essential to understand how ATM loss results in degenerative effects on the nervous system. In addition to delineating the biochemistry and cell biology of ATM, important insights into the molecular basis for neurodegeneration in A-T come from a spectrum of phenotypically related neurodegenerative diseases that directly result from DNA-repair deficiency. Together with A-T, these syndromes indicate that neurodegeneration can be caused by the failure to appropriately respond to DNA damage. This review focuses on defective DNA-damage signaling as the underlying cause of A-T. Copyright ©2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source
Zimmerman E.I.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital
Blood | Year: 2013
FLT3 kinase internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Although initial responses to FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are observed in FLT3-ITD-positive patients, subsequent relapse often occurs upon acquisition of secondary FLT3 kinase domain (KD) mutations, primarily at residues D835 and F691. Using biochemical assays, we determined that crenolanib, a novel TKI, demonstrates type I properties and is active against FLT3 containing ITD and/or D835- or F691-activating mutations. Potent activity was observed in FLT3-ITD-positive AML cell lines. Crenolanib delayed the outgrowth of MV4-11 cells in a xenograft mouse model, whereas in combination with the type II TKI sorafenib, a significant decrease in leukemic burden (P < .001) and prolonged survival (P < .01) was observed compared with either type I or II TKI alone. Crenolanib was active against Ba/F3 cells harboring FLT3-ITD and secondary KD mutations and sorafenib-resistant MOLM-13 cells containing FLT3-ITD/D835Y both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, crenolanib inhibited drug-resistant AML primary blasts with FLT3-ITD and D835H/Y mutations. These preclinical data demonstrate that crenolanib is effective against FLT3-ITD containing secondary KD mutations, suggesting that crenolanib may be a useful therapeutic agent for TKI-naive and drug-resistant FLT3-ITD-positive AML. Source
National University of Singapore and St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Date: 2014-10-17
Disclosed herein are chimeric receptors comprising an extracellular domain with affinity and specific for the Fc portion of an immunoglobulin molecule (Ig) (e.g., an extracellular ligand-binding domain of F158 FCGR3A or V158 FCGR3A variant); a transmembrane domain (e.g., a transmembrane domain of CD8); at least one co-stimulatory signaling domain (e.g., a co-stimulatory signaling domain of 4-1BB); and a cytoplasmic signaling domain comprising an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) (e.g., a cytoplasmic signaling domain of CD3). Also provided herein are nucleic acids encoding such chimeric receptors and immune cells expressing the chimeric receptors. Such immune cells can be used to enhance antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and/or to enhance antibody-based immunotherapy, such as cancer immunotherapy.
Ucl Business Plc, Thrombosis Research Institute and St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Date: 2015-04-07
An optimized coding sequence of human blood clotting factor eight (VIII) and a promoter may be used in vectors, such as rAAV, for introduction of factor VIII, and/or other blood clotting factors and transgenes. Exemplary of these factors and transgenes are alpha-1-antitrypsin, as well as those involved in the coagulation cascade, hepatocyte biology, lysosomal storage, urea cycle disorders, and lipid storage diseases. Cells, vectors, proteins, and glycoproteins produced by cells transformed by the vectors and sequence, may be used in treatment.