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Ann Arbor, MI, United States

Eggenberger J.C.,St. Joseph Mercy Hospital | Eggenberger J.C.,Michigan Heart and Vascular Institute
Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are found throughout the intestinal tract and arise from the Kulchitsky cells located in the crypts of Lieberkhn. They are classified by site of origin and by degree of differentiation, with well-differentiated lesions representing those tumors formerly referred to as carcinoid tumors. The focus of this review is NETs of the appendix, colon, and rectum. The clinical presentation of these tumors is dependent on the primary site and many are discovered incidentally, either during screening or during the investigation of nonspecific abdominal complaints. Treatment is primarily via surgical removal as the response to chemotherapy has been traditionally poor. A noted exception to this has been with treatment of the carcinoid syndrome, which occurs almost exclusively in patients with liver metastases and is due to the release of bioactive peptides and amines directly into the systemic circulation. The use of somatostatin congeners to block the release of these substances has greatly ameliorated the devastating symptoms of this condition. Postresection follow-up is advocated, but specific recommendations are lacking an evidentiary basis. NETS, particularly those of the small bowel, colon, and appendix, are seen in association with other synchronous or metachronous malignancies, often of the gastrointestinal tract. However, the utility of subsequent screening and surveillance is unproven. © 2011 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. Source

Aufderheide T.P.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Frascone R.J.,Regions Hospital | Wayne M.A.,St Joseph Medical Center | Mahoney B.D.,Hennepin County Medical Center | And 8 more authors.
The Lancet

Active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with decreased intrathoracic pressure in the decompression phase can lead to improved haemodynamics compared with standard CPR. We aimed to assess effectiveness and safety of this intervention on survival with favourable neurological function after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. In our randomised trial of 46 emergency medical service agencies (serving 2·3 million people) in urban, suburban, and rural areas of the USA, we assessed outcomes for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest according to Utstein guidelines. We provisionally enrolled patients to receive standard CPR or active compression-decompression CPR with augmented negative intrathoracic pressure (via an impedance-threshold device) with a computer-generated block randomisation weekly schedule in a one-to-one ratio. Adults (presumed age or age ≥18 years) who had a non-traumatic arrest of presumed cardiac cause and met initial and final selection criteria received designated CPR and were included in the final analyses. The primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge with favourable neurological function (modified Rankin scale score of ≤3). All investigators apart from initial rescuers were masked to treatment group assignment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00189423. 2470 provisionally enrolled patients were randomly allocated to treatment groups. 813 (68) of 1201 patients assigned to the standard CPR group (controls) and 840 (66) of 1269 assigned to intervention CPR received designated CPR and were included in the final analyses. 47 (6) of 813 controls survived to hospital discharge with favourable neurological function compared with 75 (9) of 840 patients in the intervention group (odds ratio 1·58, 95 CI 1·07-2·36; p=0·019]. 74 (9) of 840 patients survived to 1 year in the intervention group compared with 48 (6) of 813 controls (p=0·03), with equivalent cognitive skills, disability ratings, and emotional-psychological statuses in both groups. The overall major adverse event rate did not differ between groups, but more patients had pulmonary oedema in the intervention group (94 [11] of 840) than did controls (62 [7] of 813; p=0·015). On the basis of our findings showing increased effectiveness and generalisability of the study intervention, active compression-decompression CPR with augmentation of negative intrathoracic pressure should be considered as an alternative to standard CPR to increase long-term survival after cardiac arrest. US National Institutes of Health grant R44-HL065851-03, Advanced Circulatory Systems. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Tworek J.A.,St. Joseph Mercy Hospital | Henry M.R.,Mayo Medical School | Blond B.,The American College | Jones B.A.,Ford Motor Company
Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Context. - Gynecologic cytopathology is a heavily regulated field, with Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 mandating the collection of many quality metrics. There is a lack of consensus regarding methods to collect, monitor, and benchmark these data and how these data should be used in a quality assurance program. Furthermore, the introduction of human papilloma virus testing and proficiency testing has provided more data to monitor. Objective. - To determine good laboratory practices in quality assurance of gynecologic cytopathology. Data Sources. - Data were collected through a written survey consisting of 98 questions submitted to 1245 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-licensed or Department of Defense laboratories. There were 541 usable responses. Additional input was sought through a Web posting of results and questions on the College of American Pathologists Web site. Four senior authors who authored the survey and 28 cytopathologists and cytotechnologists were assigned to 5 working groups to analyze data and present statements on good laboratory practices in gynecologic cytopathology at the College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytopathology Quality Consensus Conference. Ninety-eight attendees at the College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytopathology Quality Consensus Conference discussed and voted on good laboratory practice statements to obtain consensus. Conclusions. - This paper describes the rationale, background, process, and strengths and limitations of a series of papers that summarize good laboratory practice statements in quality assurance in gynecologic cytopathology. Source

White Iv C.C.,University of New Mexico | Domeier R.M.,St. Joseph Mercy Hospital | Millin M.G.,Johns Hopkins University
Prehospital Emergency Care

Field spinal immobilization using a backboard and cervical collar has been standard practice for patients with suspected spine injury since the 1960s. The backboard has been a component of field spinal immobilization despite lack of efficacy evidence. While the backboard is a useful spinal protection tool during extrication, use of backboards is not without risk, as they have been shown to cause respiratory compromise, pain, and pressure sores. Backboards also alter a patient's physical exam, resulting in unnecessary radiographs. Because backboards present known risks, and their value in protecting the spinal cord of an injured patient remains unsubstantiated, they should only be used judiciously. The following provides a discussion of the elements of the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) and American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT) position statement on EMS spinal precautions and the use of the long backboard. This discussion includes items where there is supporting literature and items where additional science is needed. © 2014 National Association of EMS Physicians. Source

Sarkar S.,University of Michigan Health System | Bhagat I.,St. Joseph Mercy Hospital | Dechert R.E.,University of Michigan Health System | Barks J.D.,University of Michigan Health System
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition

Objective: To determine precooling attributes possibly predicting death in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) despite therapeutic cooling. Methods: Eighty-five consecutive infants of ≥36 weeks' gestation who received cooling for HIE were reviewed. Logistic regression analysis was performed using precooling clinical and laboratory variables with death related to HIE during the first 9 months of life as the primary outcome. Results: Thirteen (15%) of the 85 infants died during 9-18 months of follow-up despite cooling. 27 of the 85 were asystolic at birth but only 12 had Apgar scores of zero at both 5 and 10 min. Univariate analysis identified Apgar scores of zero at 5 and 10 min, pH <6.7, base deficit >22 mmol/l, and absent spontaneous movement as significantly associated with death during the first 9 months despite cooling. On multivariate analysis, only the Apgar score of zero at 10 min (p<0.001, OR 51.7, 95% CI 9.9 to 269.5) remained significantly associated with the primary outcome of death from HIE. Of the 12 infants who were asystolic at and beyond 10 min of life, nine died from HIE, two had spastic quadriparesis and global delay at 18-24 months, and one had extensive encephalomalacia on brain MRI during follow-up. Conclusions: Of the selected precooling variables, only the 10 min Apgar score is independently associated with death despite therapeutic cooling in infants with HIE. Infants who remain asystolic at 10 min and beyond are unlikely to survive despite cooling, and the rare survivor is likely to have severe disability. Source

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