Mathania M.M.,Sokoine University of Agriculture |
Mathania M.M.,St. Johns University of Tanzania |
Kimera S.I.,Sokoine University of Agriculture |
Silayo R.S.,Sokoine University of Agriculture
Malaria Journal | Year: 2016
Background: In Tanzania there has been a downward trend in malaria prevalence partly due to use of insecticide-treated bed nets for protection against Anopheles mosquitoes. However, residual malaria transmission attributed to early biting behaviour of malaria vectors is being reported. Knowledge of mosquito feeding behaviour is key to improvements in control approaches. The present study aimed to assess knowledge and awareness on malaria and malaria vectors in - Morogoro and Dodoma regions of Tanzania. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken in selected sites in Morogoro and Dodoma Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was administered to 218 randomly selected households from each of which the head or second in/charge and the most senior primary school child were interviewed. Results: A total of 400 participants of whom 56 % were females, were recruited into the study. Their ages ranged between nine and 58 years. Among the participants, 70.7 % had primary school education and the rest attained secondary school (16.8 %), university/college (4.0 %) and not attended school at all (8.5 %). Fifteen per cent of the participants were employed, while 45.5 % were self-employed and 39.5 % were studying. Overall, 58.5 % of respondents were knowledgeable of malaria and its vector. However, 78.8 % were not aware that early mosquito bites can transmit malaria and 86.5 % said that only midnight-biting mosquito bite was responsible for malaria transmission. The majority (66 %) of respondents visited a health facility on observing malaria symptoms while 15.8 % took anti-malaria drugs without medical consultation. Conclusion: This study has shown that Anopheles is well known as the night-biting vector of malaria. The majority of participants were not aware of changed biting behaviour of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and that early outdoor mosquito bite is a risk of malaria transmission. School children have shown a better understanding of malaria and its vector. Therefore, more awareness of Anopheles feeding behaviour is needed. © 2016 The Author(s).
Pillay V.,University of Witwatersrand |
Hibbins A.R.,University of Witwatersrand |
Choonara Y.E.,University of Witwatersrand |
Du Toit L.C.,University of Witwatersrand |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2012
Peptide therapeutics (PTs) is generally regarded as highly effective macromolecule therapeutics at very low concentrations. The main issues surrounding the administration of PTs is guaranteeing that they are bioavailable, reach the desired therapeutic index and distribute throughout the body effectively. The oral administration, a non-invasive route, of PTs is considered a major complication due to inadequate oral absorption through biological membranes such as the small intestine epithelium due to presystemic proteolytic enzymatic activity. PTs bioavailability is further diminished in the systemic circulation due to low stability in the plasma and rapid excretion from the body. Many alternative routes can be considered noninvasive such as transdermal and nasal routes, but this review focuses on the oral route, specifically the small intestine region of the gastrointestinal tract. Although this region has the highest density of proteolytic enzymes, it contains tight junctions which have the lowest trans-epithelial electrical resistance throughout the body; thus paracellular transport of these large PTs can be achieved more readily. The use of a natural polysaccharide polymer, such as trimethyl chitosan (TMC), which enhances the bioavailability of these PTs through the small intestine, will also be discussed in great detail. TMC has been considered because it could potentially solve many of the mechanistic and chemical problems associated with oral therapeutic peptide administration. The safety of orally administered PTs through the small intestinal epithelium employing a polymer such as TMC is also discussed as this is a significant issue for regulatory bodies. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.
Savage A.R.,St. Johns University of Tanzania
International Journal of Urological Nursing | Year: 2015
Tanzanian institutions that educate Tanzanian health professionals have limited teaching/learning resources, including dated donated material. There have been significant changes in the recommended management of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs) over recent decades. This study aimed to investigate the suitability of teaching materials in one Tanzanian institution on indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) management, compared with the NICE guidelines (National Clinical Guidance Centre, 2012), and to identify additional material required to complement these guidelines. A documentary review was carried out on 14 texts using 48 sub-themes of importance in the management of IUCs. Suggestions for context-specific additions to the NICE guidelines were identified by the author from experience, and confirmed by two nurse educators currently practising in Tanzania. Almost all the texts available were inappropriate as far as teaching material for IUC is concerned. Suggested material to complement the NICE guidelines includes details of IUC insertion procedure and material that reflects the Tanzanian context. Teachers of clinical practitioners in resource poor settings can prepare suitable materials if they analyse selected up to date on-line material, and adapt it to their context. Financial support can be best utilized in improving on-line facilities supplemented by carefully chosen new hard copy material. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. and BAUN.
Mufamadi M.S.,University of Witwatersrand |
Choonara Y.E.,University of Witwatersrand |
Kumar P.,University of Witwatersrand |
Modi G.,University of Witwatersrand |
And 5 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2012
Purpose: To develop chelating ligand-bound nanoliposomes (NLPs) for the prevention and reversal of β-Amyloid (Aβ) aggregation associated with promoting neurotoxicity in Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Four different chelating ligands (CuAc, EDTA, histidine and ZnAc) were surface-engineered onto NLPs using either covalent or non-covalent conjugation. Successful conjugation of chelating ligands onto the surface of NLPs was confirmed by characterization studies: SEM, TEM and FTIR analysis. Chelation energetics of EDTA with Cu(II)/Zn(II)-Aβ(10-21) and nanoformation of emulsified polymers were computed and corroborated with experimental and analytical data using chemometric molecular modeling. Results: The modified NLPs produced were spherical in shape, 127-178 nm in size, with polydispersity index from 0.217-0.920 and zeta potential range of -9.59 to -37.3 mV. Conjugation efficiencies were 30-76 %, which confirmed that chelating ligands were attached to the NLP surface. Conclusions: In vitro and ex vivo results elucidated the effectiveness of chelating ligand-bound NLPs for prevention of CuAβ(1-42) or ZnAβ(1-42) aggregate buildup associated with neurotoxicity in PC12 neuronal cells, as well as promotion of intracellular uptake in the presence of Cu(II) or Zn(II) metal ions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Buchanan M.S.,St. Johns University of Tanzania
Chemistry Education Research and Practice | Year: 2015
Most Tanzanian Higher Education Institutes do not have the materials and technology to give students a significant practical experience in the sciences. In 2013 Tanzania was rated 159th out of 187 countries for 'human development' (United Nations Development Program 2014 Report). In order to supplement their current, limited practical experience, a culturally relevant, interactive seminar which makes the chemical sciences real to the world of Tanzanians was developed. This was achieved via a Natural Product Drug Discovery seminar during which Tanzanian students were able to appreciate how Tanzanian culture is connected with the fundamentals and applications of the chemical sciences (in this case natural product drug discovery to combat diseases prevalent in Tanzania). Post-seminar evaluation and, observation of student behaviour and chemistry staff feedback supported the value of this seminar. An interactive seminar such as this provides an innovative method of chemical education, useful to motivate final year students and provide them with new ideas before they go into their communities to teach chemistry. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.