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Bangalore, India

Ekstrand M.L.,University of California at San Francisco | Ekstrand M.L.,St Johns Research Institute | Bharat S.,Tata Institute of Social Sciences | Ramakrishna J.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Heylen E.,University of California at San Francisco
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2012

This study was designed to examine the prevalence of stigma and its underlying factors in two large Indian cities. Cross-sectional interview data were collected from 1, 076 non-HIV patients in multiple healthcare settings in Mumbai and Bengaluru, India. The vast majority of participants supported mandatory testing for marginalized groups and coercive family policies for PLHA, stating that they "deserved" their infections and "didn't care" about infecting others. Most participants did not want to be treated at the same clinic or use the same utensils as PLHA and transmission misconceptions were common. Multiple linear regression showed that blame, transmission misconceptions, symbolic stigma and negative feelings toward PLHA were significantly associated with both stigma and discrimination. The results indicate an urgent need for continued stigma reduction efforts to reduce the suffering of PLHA and barriers to prevention and treatment. Given the high levels of blame and endorsement of coercive policies, it is crucial that such programs are shaped within a human rights framework. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Swaminathan S.,St Johns Research Institute
Indian journal of pediatrics | Year: 2013

Establishing the relationship between childhood physical inactivity and noncommunicable disease (NCD) is difficult, since chronic disease and mortality are not direct health outcomes of physical inactivity in children. Published literature explores the relationship of physical inactivity with appearance of early childhood disease risk markers, the adverse impact of which may take some time to appear. Promoting childhood physical activity has multiple benefits including delay in evolution of risk factors contributing to adult degenerative disease. It is clear from available literature that physical inactivity or its surrogates constitute an important independent risk factor for NCD. This is likely to be underestimated not only because of measurement issues, but also because physical inactivity may act through other risk factors for NCD. To recognize and intervene on the issue of physical inactivity in children is important not only for the benefit of the child but in the context of NCD in later life. Studies on physical inactivity and its functional correlates are limited in India and this would be an important area for future research. Source


Chandra P.S.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Satyanarayana V.A.,St Johns Research Institute
International Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Research in the area of gender and mental health indicates that women are disproportionately affected by common mental disorders (CMDs) as well as co-morbid mental disorders. However, the concept of gender disadvantage, its correlates, and mental health outcomes has received relatively less research attention. In addition, there are no known systematic reviews in the area of gender disadvantage and common mental disorders in recent years. In this review we have therefore attempted to deconstruct the concept of gender disadvantage, identify important correlates of gender disadvantage and illustrate their influence on common mental disorders. Since gender is a social construct and is greatly influenced by one's culture and ethnicity, we have made an attempt to integrate international literature on the subject and highlight cultural and ethnic relevance of topics as they emerge. Finally, we have provided take home messages from existing literature, identified gaps in literature, and formulated directions for future research in this area. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved. Source


Vaz M.,St Johns Research Institute
Indian journal of medical ethics | Year: 2014

There is no agreement on the typology and definition of biobanks.The present regulations across countries, including India, focus ongenomic and genetic databases and DNA and cell line biobanking.It is unclear how the range of the holdings of biological samples in diagnostic and research laboratories fall under these regulatory frameworks. Biobank-related research has become very attractive because of advances in sample storage and data processing, a better understanding of the human genome, and high throughput laboratory assays. There is extensive literature and much debate on the subject, especially on the ethical and regulatory dilemmas, in the developed countries, but this is hardly the casein developing countries. This paper is based on a review of the published documents and data, and aims at evaluating the ethical frameworks for biobanking in the Indian context. The issues of"'broad consent; commercialisation of samples, and extended sample use are discussed. The governance of biobanks emerges as an integral part of the ethical responsibilities of institutions. It also makes the implementation of national guidelines possible, and helps to enhance the trust and confidence of local contributors in biobank research. Source


Maddu N.,Sri Krishnadevaraya University | Raghavendra P.B.,St Johns Research Institute
Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology | Year: 2015

One of the remarkable discoveries in the field of psychopharmacology from late 1940s is Lithium (Li) that reminds of old but still gold. It continues to be a distinctive mood stabilizer that matches various standards recommended for mood stabilizers. Apart from this Li is also known to affect immune cell functions. Lithium response and regulations of different immune cells in bipolar patients, related immune disorders are not well defined. Here, we provide an overview of literature with regard to Li's effects on different immune cells. However, the use of Li is currently limited to bipolar disorders and there is no empirical evidence for immune cell disorders. The objective of this article is to provide the evaluations of Li responses towards the different immune cells based on the existing studies. Further, more studies are needed to understand the mechanistic basis and heterogeneous responses of Li's effect in bipolar, also unravel relative immune disorders. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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