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Bangalore, India

Tirumalae R.,St Johns Medical College
Indian Journal of Dermatology

Psoriasiform dermatoses often pose challenges to both dermatologists and pathologists alike. With proper clinicopathologic correlation and a systematic approach, it is possible to arrive at a specific diagnosis in most cases. This article attempts to outline a practical, step-wise method of looking at these cases and highlights some important clues in individual conditions. Source

Moodithaya S.,NITTE University | Avadhany S.T.,St Johns Medical College
Journal of Aging Research

Ageing is associated with changes in cardiac autonomic control as measured by Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Not many studies have explored the influence of gender on age-related changes in cardiac autonomic regulation. This study evaluated the gender differences in age-associated changes in cardiac autonomic nervous activity by assessing HRV using frequency domain analysis of short-term stationary R-R intervals. HRV was studied in healthy males and females ranging in age from 6 to 55 years. Total power and absolute power in High-Frequency (HF) and Low-Frequency (LF) components as well as HF in normalized unit declined significantly with ageing. The HF/LF ratio was significantly higher in the adolescent and adult females compared to male of these age groups. This study suggests that gender differences exist in age-related changes in HRV. The finding that gender differences are limited to adolescent and adult age groups may indicate a role for female sex hormones in cardiac autonomic modulation. © 2012 Shailaja Moodithaya and Sandhya T. Avadhany. Source

Deepthi R.,Sri Devaraj Academy of Higher Education and Research | Kasthuri A.,St Johns Medical College
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics

Hearing loss is a potentially disabling problem among elderly leading to physical and social dysfunction. Though audiometric assessment of hearing loss is considered as gold standard, it is not feasible in community settings. Several questionnaires measuring hearing handicap have been developed. Knowledge regarding applicability of these questionnaires among rural elderly is limited, hence a study was planned to validate single question and Shortened Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly (HHIE-S) in detecting hearing loss against pure tone-audiometry among rural Indian elderly. A single question 'do you feel you have a hearing loss?' and the HHIE-S was administered to 175 elderly in two rural areas. Hearing ability was assessed using pure tone audiometry. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of both screening tools were compared with pure tone averages (PTAs) greater than 25, 40 and 55. dB hearing level (mild, moderate and severe hearing loss, respectively). The single question yielded low sensitivity (30.9%) and high specificity (93.9%) for mild hearing loss. Similarly HHIE-S yielded a sensitivity of 26.2% and specificity of 95.9%. Sensitivity with single question increased to 76.2% and specificity decreased to 83.1% with severe hearing loss. Sensitivity with HHIE-S also increased to 76.2% and specificity decreased to 87.7% with severe hearing loss. These hearing screening questionnaires will be useful in identifying more disabling hearing losses among rural elderly which helps in rehabilitation services planning. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Gupta S.,St Johns Medical College
Indian journal of medical sciences

Shigellosis is a disease of public health importance in developing countries. It may cause self-limited diarrhea to severe dysentery. Emergence of multi drug resistant (MDR) strains is a growing concern globally. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are the drugs of choice for MDR cases. Here, we report a case of MDR Shigella flexneri from an immunocompromised patient. The strain was resistant to ceftriaxone [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 64 μg/ml], limiting the treatment option. Simultaneously, the strain was also found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). However, it was susceptible to ceftazidime (MIC 4 μg/ml). This is the first case of ceftriaxone resistant Shigella spp. reported from our hospital. Source

Diener H.-C.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Connolly S.J.,Hamilton Health Sciences | Ezekowitz M.D.,Lankenau Institute for Medical Research and the Heart Center | Wallentin L.,Uppsala University | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology

Background: In the Randomised Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial, dabigatran reduced occurrence of both stroke and haemorrhage compared with warfarin in patients who had atrial fibrillation and were at increased risk of stroke. We aimed to assess the effects of dabigatran compared with warfarin in the subgroup of patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Methods: In the RE-LY trial, 18 113 patients from 967 centres in 44 countries were randomly assigned to 110 mg or 150 mg dabigatran twice daily or to warfarin dose adjusted to international normalised ratio 2·0 to 3·0. Median follow-up was 2·0 years (IQR 1·14-2·86), and the primary outcome was stroke or systemic embolism. The primary safety outcome was major haemorrhage. Patients and investigators were aware of whether patients received warfarin or dabigatran, but not of dabigatran dose, and event adjudicators were masked to treatment. In a predefined analysis, we investigated the outcomes of the RE-LY trial in subgroups of patients with or without previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. RE-LY is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00262600. Findings: Within the subgroup of patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack, 1195 patients were from the 110 mg dabigatran group, 1233 from the 150 mg dabigatran group, and 1195 from the warfarin group. Stroke or systemic embolism occurred in 65 patients (2·78% per year) on warfarin compared with 55 (2·32% per year) on 110 mg dabigatran (relative risk 0·84, 95% CI 0·58-1·20) and 51 (2·07% per year) on 150 mg dabigatran (0·75, 0·52-1·08). The rate of major bleeding was significantly lower in patients on 110 mg dabigatran (RR 0·66, 95% CI 0·48-0·90) and similar in those on 150 mg dabigatran (RR 1·01; 95% CI 0·77-1·34) compared with those on warfarin. The effects of both doses of dabigatran compared with warfarin were not significantly different between patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack and those without for any of the outcomes from RE-LY apart from vascular death (110 mg group compared with warfarin group, interaction p=0·038). Interpretation: In patients with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack, the effects of 110 mg dabigatran and 150 mg dabigatran on stroke or systemic embolism were similar to those of warfarin. Most effects of both dabigatran doses were consistent in patients with versus those without previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Funding: Boehringer Ingelheim. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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