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Subiaco, Australia

Morgan D.J.R.,St John of God Hospital Subiaco | Ho K.M.,St John of God Hospital Subiaco | Ho K.M.,University of Western Australia | Ho K.M.,Murdoch University
Obesity Surgery

Background: It is uncertain whether bariatric surgery can be safely performed in secondary hospitals without on-site intensive care unit (ICU) support. This study describes the outcomes of elective bariatric surgery patients who required inter-hospital transfers for unplanned ICU management, extrapolating this as a parameter for secondary hospital safety after bariatric surgery. Methods: This was a retrospective, statewide, population-based, linked data cohort study capturing all adult bariatric surgery patients for an entire Australian state between 2007 and 2011 (n = 12,062) with minimum 12-month follow-up. Results: In secondary hospitals, 2663 (22.1 %) bariatric patients were operated on, with the majority (n = 2553) undergoing sleeve gastrectomies (SG) or adjustable gastric bands (LAGB). Forty-two patients (including 19 LAGB and 20 SG) required inter-hospital transfer to a tertiary hospital for unplanned ICU care (1.6 %, 95 % confidence interval 1.2–2.1), mainly due to surgical complications. Inter-hospital transfers incurred two deaths, both following sleeve gastrectomies. When compared to patients requiring unplanned ICU admissions after bariatric surgery in tertiary hospitals with an on-site ICU (n = 155), there was no difference in their demographic parameters, comorbid illnesses, or mortality (4.8 vs 3.9 %, p = 0.68). The mortality following bariatric procedures both statewide (0.2 %) and in secondary hospitals (0.2 %) was both uncommon and comparable. Conclusions: Statewide inter-hospital transfers for unplanned ICU care from secondary hospitals were low. Inter-hospital transfer mortality was comparable to a similar bariatric cohort requiring unplanned ICU care after surgery in a tertiary hospital. This suggests that certain bariatric procedures can be safely done in most secondary hospitals where elective ICU admission is deemed unnecessary. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Morgan D.J.R.,St John of God Hospital Subiaco | Ho K.M.,University of Western Australia | Armstrong J.,St John of God Hospital Subiaco | Litton E.,St John of God Hospital Subiaco
Annals of Surgery

Objective: To determine the long-term outcomes, health care utilization, and risk factors for complications after bariatric surgery. Background: With the burgeoning problem of obesity and the consequential rise in bariatric surgery, uncertainty remains as to whether this has been matched by a reduction in long-term health care utilization. Methods: A population-based linked-data cohort study, utilizing a comprehensive set of data, including detailed comorbidity and complications, of each individual who had undergone bariatric surgery between 2007 and 2011 in Western Australia. Records were obtained via data linkage through the Western Australian Department of Health Data Linkage Unit. Every patient was followed for a minimum of 12-months after surgery or until death. Results: A total of 12062 patients underwent bariatric surgery during the study period with a mean follow-up period of 41 months. Hospitalization rates after bariatric surgery were substantially reduced for all-cause (361 vs 501 per 1000 patient-years, P = 0.002) and diabetes mellitus-related (7 vs 31 per 1000 patient-years, P < 0.001) diagnoses when compared with hospitalization rates before bariatric surgery. Complications occurred in 2171 (18.0%) patients during the follow-up period. Patient age, sex, open surgical procedures, and Charlson Comorbidity Index were associated with an increased risk of complications, with age the most important and accounting for 77% of the variability in the risk of complications. Long-term all-cause mortality rate after surgery was extremely low (0.54 deaths per 1000 patient-years). Conclusions: When measured against long-term safety outcomes, bariatric surgery has lowmortality andmorbidity associated with a significant reduction in subsequent hospitalizations. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Morgan D.J.R.,St John of God Hospital Subiaco | Ho K.M.,St John of God Hospital Subiaco | Ho K.M.,University of Western Australia | Ho K.M.,Murdoch University | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Anaesthesia

Background: With increasing rates of bariatric surgery and the consequential involvement of increasingly complex patients, uncertainty remains regarding the use of intensive care unit (ICU) services after bariatric surgery. Our objective was to define the incidence, indications, and outcomes of patients requiring ICU admission after bariatric surgery and assess whether unplanned ICU admission could be predicted using preoperative factors. Methods: All adult bariatric surgery patients between 2007 and 2011 in Western Australia were identified from the Department of Health Data Linkage Unit database and merged with a separate database encompassing all subsequent ICU admissions pertaining to bariatric surgery. The minimal and mean follow-up periods were 12 months and 3.4 yr, respectively. Results: Of the 12 062 patients who underwent bariatric surgery during the study period, 590 patients (4.9%; 650 ICU admissions) were admitted to an ICU after their bariatric surgery. Patients admitted to the ICU were older (48 vs 43 yr, P<0.001), more likely to be male (49.7 vs 20.2%, P<0.001), and more likely to require revisional bariatric surgery (14.4 vs 7.1%, P<0.001). One hundred and seventy-six patients required an emergent unplanned ICU admission, with 51 requiring multiple ICU admissions. Revisional or open surgery, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory disease, and obstructive apnoea were the strongest preoperative factors associated with unplanned ICU admission. Conclusions: Intensive care unit admission after bariatric surgery was uncommon (4.9% of all patients), with 30.9% of all referrals being unplanned. A nomogram and smartphone application based on five important preoperative factors may assist anaesthetists to conduct preoperative planning for high-risk bariatric surgical patients. © 2015 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. Source

Morgan D.J.R.,St John of God Hospital Subiaco | Ho K.M.,St John of God Hospital Subiaco | Ho K.M.,University of Western Australia
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases

Background A multidisciplinary bariatric surgical approach is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. However, little is known about how the physiologic impact of weight reduction surgery superimposed on premorbid obesity-related co-morbidities may adversely influence perioperative renal function. Methods This observational, multicenter study investigated all bariatric surgery patients (n = 590) admitted to any intensive care unit (ICU) in Western Australia between 2007 and 2011. Using Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, we ascertained the incidence and contributing risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI). Results Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred in 103 patients, accounting for 17.5% of all ICU admissions after bariatric surgery with 76.8% of the AKI episodes limited to AKIN stage 1. In a multivariate analysis, male gender, premorbid hypertension, higher admission APACHE II scores, and blood transfusions were all associated with AKI, while preexisting chronic kidney disease and body mass index (BMI) appeared not to influence renal decline. Both ICU (6.7 versus 2.5 d, P<.001) and hospital (18.6 versus 6.8 d, P<.001) length of stays were significantly increased after AKI. Six patients required hemodialysis while both ICU mortality (2.9 versus 0%, P =.005) and long-term mortality (18.2 versus 4.7 deaths per 1000 bariatric patient-yr, P =.01) were greater in patients experiencing AKI. Conclusions AKI is common in bariatric patients requiring critical care support leading to increased healthcare utilization, prolonged hospitalization, and is associated with a higher mortality. BMI, a previously described risk factor, was not predictive of AKI in this cohort. © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Source

Litton E.,St John of God Hospital Subiaco | Litton E.,University of Western Australia | Carnegie V.,Fiona Stanley Hospital | Elliott R.,University of Technology, Sydney | Webb S.A.R.,University of Western Australia
Critical Care Medicine

Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of earplugs as an ICU strategy for reducing delirium. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials were searched using the terms "intensive care," "critical care," "earplugs," "sleep," "sleep disorders," and "delirium." Study Selection: Intervention studies (randomized or nonrandomized) assessing the efficacy of earplugs as a sleep hygiene strategy in patients admitted to a critical care environment were included. Studies were excluded if they included only healthy volunteers, did not report any outcomes of interest, did not contain an intervention group of interest, were crossover studies, or were only published in abstract form. Data Extraction: Nine studies published between 2009 and 2015, including 1,455 participants, fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. Studies included earplugs as an isolated intervention (n = 3), or as part of a bundle with eye shades (n = 2), or earplugs, eye shades, and additional sleep noise abatement strategies (n = 4). The risk of bias was high for all studies. Data Synthesis: Five studies comprising 832 participants reported incident delirium. Earplug placement was associated with a relative risk of delirium of 0.59 (95% CI, 0.44-0.78) and no significant heterogeneity between the studies (I2, 39%; p = 0.16). Hospital mortality was reported in four studies (n = 481) and was associated with a relative risk of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.54-1.11; I2, 0%; p < 0.001). Compliance with the placement of earplugs was reported in six studies (n = 681). The mean per-patient noncompliance was 13.1% (95% CI, 7.8-25.4) of those assigned to receive earplugs. Conclusions: Placement of earplugs in patients admitted to the ICU, either in isolation or as part of a bundle of sleep hygiene improvement, is associated with a significant reduction in risk of delirium. The potential effect of cointerventions and the optimal strategy for improving sleep hygiene and associated effect on patient-centered outcomes remains uncertain. Source

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