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Regensburg, Germany

Manner H.,Hospital Teaching Hospital of the University Medicine of Mainz | Pech O.,St. John of God Hospital | Heldmann Y.,Hospital Teaching Hospital of the University Medicine of Mainz | May A.,Hospital Teaching Hospital of the University Medicine of Mainz | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with early-stage mucosal (T1a) esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are increasingly treated by endoscopic resection. EACs limited to the upper third of the submucosa (pT1b sm1) could also be treated by endoscopy. We assessed the efficacy, safety, and long-term effects of endoscopic therapy for these patients. METHODS: We analyzed data from 66 patients with sm1 low-risk lesions (macroscopically polypoid or flat, with a histologic pattern of sm1 invasion, good-to-moderate differentiation [G1/2], and no invasion into lymph vessels or veins) treated by endoscopic therapy at the HSK Hospital Wiesbaden from 1996 through 2010. The efficacy of endoscopic therapy was assessed on the basis of rates of complete endoluminal remission (CER), metachronous neoplasia, lymph node events, and long-term remission (LTR). Safety was assessed on the basis of rate of complications. RESULTS: Remissions were assessed in 61 of the 66 patients; 53 of the 61 achieved CER (87%). Of patients with small focal neoplasias <2 cm, 97% achieved CER (for those with tumors >2 cm, 77%; P = 026). Metachronous neoplasias were observed in 10 of 53 patients (19%; 9 of the 10 underwent repeat endoscopic resection). One patient developed a lymph node metastasis (1.9%). Fifty-one patients achieved LTR (84%); 90% of those with focal lesions <2 cm achieved LTR after a mean follow-up period of 47 ± 29.1 months (range, 8-120 months). No tumor-associated deaths were observed, and the estimated 5-year survival rate was 84%. The rate of major complications from endoscopic resection was 1.5%, and no patients died. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic therapy appears to be a good alternative to esophagectomy for patients with pT1b sm1 EAC, on the basis of macroscopic and histologic analyses. The risk of developing lymph node metastases after endoscopic resection for sm1 EAC is lower than the risk of surgery.© 2013 AGA Institute. Source

Pech O.,St. John of God Hospital
Digestive Diseases

The cancer risk of nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus is very low (0.33-0.5 per year). Therefore, any endoscopic ablation technique is an overtreatment. Patients with low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia confirmed by a specialized GI pathologist seem to have a significant risk for developing high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) or cancer. Therefore, endoscopic treatment in this case seems to be justified. However, up to now there has been no prospective study supporting this. In recent years, endoscopic treatment of HGIN and mucosal Barrett's cancer has become a widely accepted treatment approach and even the therapy of choice in many countries. Endoscopic resection (ER) is the best validated treatment method in patients with HGIN and mucosal Barrett's cancer, and is widely used all over the world. In contrast to ablative treatment methods like argon plasma coagulation and radiofrequency ablation, ER allows histological assessment of the resected specimen in order to assess the depth of infiltration of the tumor. However, ER of the neoplastic lesions should always be followed by ablation of the nondysplastic remaining Barrett's esophagus in order to reduce the risk of recurrence or metachronous neoplasia. The long-time complete remission rate with this two-step strategy is ≥95%. A matter of continuing debate is whether patients with Barrett's cancer infiltrating the upper third of the mucosal layer (pT1sm1) can be treated by ER. Data from our and other centers indicate that a subgroup of patients with pT1sm1 adenocarcinomas without the presence of risk factors (poor differentiation grade, lymph or blood vessel infiltration, size >20 mm, ulcerated lesion) have a very low risk for lymph node metastasis (<2%) and endoscopic therapy can be an alternative to radical surgery. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

McDonnell N.J.,St. John of God Hospital | Percival V.,King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women | Paech M.J.,University of Western Australia
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia

Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare and potentially catastrophic condition that is unique to pregnancy. The presentation may range from relatively subtle clinical events to sudden maternal cardiac arrest. Despite an increased awareness of the condition, it remains a leading cause of maternal mortality. The underlying mechanisms of amniotic fluid embolism are poorly understood, but current theories support an immune-based mechanism which is triggered by potentially small amounts of amniotic fluid gaining access to the maternal circulation. This can result in a wide spectrum of clinical findings, with cardiovascular and haematological disturbances being prominent. The management of a suspected episode of amniotic fluid embolism is generally considered to be supportive, although in centres with specific expertise, echocardiography may assist in guiding management. Whilst outcomes after an episode of amniotic fluid embolism are still concerning, mortality would appear to have decreased in recent times, likely secondary to an improved awareness of the condition, advances in acute care and the inclusion of less severe episodes in case registries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Gan P.,St. John of God Hospital | Bingham J.,Easington Pty Ltd
Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques

Background: All retractors for laparoscopic operations on the gallbladder or stomach apply an upward force to the under-surface of the liver or gallbladder, most requiring an additional skin incision. The LiVac laparoscopic liver retractor system (LiVac retractor) comprises a soft silicone ring attached to suction tubing and connected to a regulated source of suction. The suction tubing extends alongside existing ports. When placed between the liver and diaphragm, and suction applied, a vacuum is created within the ring, keeping these in apposition. Following successful proof-of-concept animal testing, a clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance and safety of the retractor in patients. Methods: The study was a dual-centre, single-surgeon, open-label study and recruited ten patients scheduled to undergo routine upper abdominal laparoscopic surgery including cholecystectomy, primary gastric banding surgery or fundoplication. The study was conducted at two sites and was approved by the institutions’ ethics committees. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of the LiVac retractor in patients undergoing upper abdominal single- or multi-port laparoscopic surgery. Performance was measured by the attainment of milestones for the retractor and accessory bevel, where used, and safety outcomes through the recording of adverse events, physical parameters, pain scales, blood tests and a post-operative liver ultrasound. Results: The LiVac retractor achieved both primary and secondary performance and safety objectives in all patients. No serious adverse events and no device-related adverse events or device deficiencies were reported. Conclusion: The LiVac retractor achieved effective liver retraction without clinically significant trauma and has potential application in multi- or single-port laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery. As a separate incision is not required, the use of the LiVac retractor in multi-port surgery therefore reduces the number of incisions. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

Manner H.,Teaching Hospital of the University Medicine of Mainz | Rabenstein T.,Diakonissen Stiftungskrankenhaus | Pech O.,St. John of God Hospital | Braun K.,Teaching Hospital of the University Medicine of Mainz | And 5 more authors.

Background and study aim: It is commonly assumed that ablation of any remaining Barrett's epithelium after endoscopic resection of early Barrett's neoplasia improves outcome by reducing the rate of metachronous lesions, but this has not yet been evaluated in a randomized trial. The aim of this study was to compare argon plasma coagulation (APC) with surveillance only for the management of residual Barrett's epithelium following endoscopic resection. Patients and methods: Patients in whom focal early Barrett's neoplasia (high grade intraepithelial neoplasia [HGIN] or mucosal cancer) had been curatively resected by endoscopy were randomly assigned to undergo ablation of the residual Barrett's segment by APC or surveillance only; pH-metry-adjusted proton pump inhibitor therapy was administered in both groups. The main outcome parameter was recurrence-free survival. Follow-up endoscopies with biopsies in cases of further residual Barrett's epithelium were carried out at 6-monthly intervals in both groups. Results: A total of 63 patients (57 male [90.5%]) were included in the study (ablation group n=33; surveillance group n=30). For complete Barrett's ablation, a mean number of 4±1.6 APC sessions were required (range 2-7). The mean follow-up duration did not differ significantly between ablation (28.2±13.7 months, range 0-44) and surveillance patients (24.7±14.8 months, range 0-45; P=0.159). The number of secondary lesions was 1 in the ablation group (3%), and 11 in the surveillance group (36.7%), leading to significantly higher recurrence-free survival for the patients undergoing ablation (P=0.005). Conclusions: Thermal ablation of residual Barrett's epithelium leads to a significant reduction in neoplasia recurrence rate compared with a surveillance strategy during a limited follow-up of 2 years. A longer follow-up duration may have led to a relatively higher rate of secondary neoplasia in both groups of patients.©Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. Source

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