Rungis, France
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Poette J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Poette J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Poette J.,University of Burgundy | Mekoue J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 14 more authors.
Flavour and Fragrance Journal | Year: 2014

Fat perception is assumed to result, at least in part, from in-mouth non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) detection. The aim of this study was to better understand how human oral physiology may govern the sensory sensitivity to NEFAs. For this purpose, the detection thresholds for oleic acid were determined for 17 human subjects with highly varying salivary and oral characteristics, and the thresholds were related to their oral and salivary characteristics with conventional and multidimensional data analysis. These thresholds were tested on a dairy oil-in-water emulsion that was specifically designed to avoid biases caused by differences in the initial structure of the emulsion as a function of oleic acid concentration. The emulsion was judged to be rather acceptable compared with model emulsions and commercial emulsified dairy foods. Twelve oleic acid concentrations, ranging from 0.00028% to 0.16% (w/w) in the emulsion, were tested with the ascending series three-alternate forced-choice method with nose-clips (WNC) or without nose-clips (WoNC). The oleic acid WNC and WoNC thresholds were 0.09% w/w and 0.063% w/w, respectively, and hypersensitive and hyposensitive subjects were identified. Partial least squares and analysis of variance indicated that the WNC threshold is positively correlated to both the lipolytic activity of saliva and the oral volume, whereas the WoNC threshold is positively correlated to the saliva antioxidant status and negatively correlated to its protein amount and lysozyme activity. This study supports the hypothesis that NEFAs are detected in the oral cavity in humans and provides new insights on the oral physiological characteristics that may play important roles in fat detection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Perignon M.,Montpellier SupAgro | Lecomte J.,Montpellier SupAgro | Pina M.,Montpellier SupAgro | Renault A.,St Hubert | And 2 more authors.
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2012

The nutritional profile and rheological behaviors of lipids is both due to fatty acid composition and regiodistribution on external and internal positions of triacylglycerol. Actual methods for regiodistribution analysis having some restrictions, there is still a need for investigating a safe, simple and environmentally friendly method for the sn-2 position analysis that could especially be used for the analysis of fats containing medium and short chain fatty acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the 1,3-selectivity and typoselectivity of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of short/medium chain fatty acids in partial hydrolysis conditions used for regiodistribution analysis. Structured triacylglycerols containing eight-carbon-chain length fatty acids in the sn -2 position were chemically synthesized using DCC/DMAP coupling agent and purification steps by flash-chromatography. The final product showed very high purity and was used as the substrate for 1,3-selectivity evaluation. Typoselectivity was assessed by investigating partial hydrolysis of equimolar blends of homogeneous TAG. This study confirmed the 1,3-selectivity of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the hydrolysis conditions used, and revealed that this lipase was less influenced by fatty acids chain length than pancreatic lipase. Considering this, Rhizopus oryzae lipase appeared to be a good candidate for regiodistribution analysis of fats containing medium and short chain fatty acids. © 2011 AOCS.


Perignon M.,Montpellier SupAgro | Lecomte J.,Montpellier SupAgro | Pina M.,Montpellier SupAgro | Renault A.,St Hubert | And 2 more authors.
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2013

Lipases are enzymes used in numerous reactions of industrial interest. Depending on their aqueous microenvironment, lipases can catalyze hydrolysis or, conversely, organic synthesis like interesterification. This reaction can be used as a method to modify the physical and chemical properties of fats and oils, a basic process for production of "structured lipids". For such synthesis reactions, thermodynamic water activity (aw) of the catalyst is generally the most important parameter to control. Actually, it will directly determine the performance of the synthesis, namely its yield, selectivity and stability. Effect of the aw on the activity of immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus and Candida antarctica B lipases in interesterification reactions was studied. Water sorption and desorption isotherms were determined, showing a phenomenon of hysteresis for the Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase. Evaluation of the influence of aw on reaction yields revealed that the IE activity tends to increase with the water activity of immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase. In contrast, a w had little influence in the case of the Candida antarctica B lipase. © 2013 AOCS.


Renault A.,St Hubert
OCL - Oilseeds and fats | Year: 2015

The last national study on individual food consumption confirmed that French consumers have a very low intake of omega 3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), as well as an inadequate balance between omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids, that should be compensated with a more important intake in omega 3. Certain types of margarines and spreads offer the possibility to increase the intake in this nutriment, in particular margarines containing linseed oil. Their high content of ALA allows, on the basis of a daily consumption of 20 g, to counterbalance, partially or totally, the low intake in omega 3. However, these spreads require a quite particular attention in their development and their production, mostly because of the relative instability of the linseed oil in the oxidation process and the need to avoid developing of off tastes until the end of shelf life. © 2015 A. Renault.


Patent
St Hubert | Date: 2013-09-04

An edible water-in-oil emulsion includes a fat content ranging 15 and 95% and a chocolate inclusion content ranging between 5 and 50%, which chocolate inclusions have a size ranging between 1 and 8 mm, and are distributed preferentially homogeneously throughout the emulsion. A method of preparing such an emulsion is also described

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