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Draaken M.,University of Bonn | Knapp M.,University of Bonn | Pennimpede T.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics | Schmidt J.M.,University of Bonn | And 20 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2015

The bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) represents the severe end of the uro-rectal malformation spectrum, and is thought to result from aberrant embryonic morphogenesis of the cloacal membrane and the urorectal septum. The most common form of BEEC is isolated classic bladder exstrophy (CBE). To identify susceptibility loci for CBE, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 110 CBE patients and 1,177 controls of European origin. Here, an association was found with a region of approximately 220kb on chromosome 5q11.1. This region harbors the ISL1 (ISL LIM homeobox 1) gene. Multiple markers in this region showed evidence for association with CBE, including 84 markers with genome-wide significance. We then performed a meta-analysis using data from a previous GWAS by our group of 98 CBE patients and 526 controls of European origin. This meta-analysis also implicated the 5q11.1 locus in CBE risk. A total of 138 markers at this locus reached genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis, and the most significant marker (rs9291768) achieved a P value of 2.13 × 10−12. No other locus in the meta-analysis achieved genome-wide significance. We then performed murine expression analyses to follow up this finding. Here, Isl1 expression was detected in the genital region within the critical time frame for human CBE development. Genital regions with Isl1 expression included the peri-cloacal mesenchyme and the urorectal septum. The present study identified the first genome-wide significant locus for CBE at chromosomal region 5q11.1, and provides strong evidence for the hypothesis that ISL1 is the responsible candidate gene in this region. © 2015 Draaken et al. Source


Draaken M.,University of Bonn | Baudisch F.,University of Bonn | Timmermann B.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics | Kuhl H.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics | And 23 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2014

Background: Classic bladder exstrophy (CBE) is the most common form of the bladder exstrophy and epispadias complex. Previously, we and others have identified four patients with a duplication of 22q11.21 among a total of 96 unrelated CBE patients. Methods: Here, we investigated whether this chromosomal aberration was commonly associated with CBE/bladder exstrophy and epispadias complex in an extended case-control sample. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and microarray-based analysis were used to identify 22q11.21 duplications in 244 unrelated bladder exstrophy and epispadias complex patients (including 217 CBE patients) and 665 healthy controls. Results: New duplications of variable size were identified in four CBE patients and one control. Pooling of our previous and present data (eight duplications in 313 CBE patients) yielded a combined odds ratio of 31.86 (95% confidence interval, 4.24-1407.97). Array-based sequence capture and high-throughput targeted re-sequencing established that all breakpoints resided within the low-copy repeats 22A to 22D. Comparison of the eight duplications revealed a 414 kb phenocritical region harboring 12 validated RefSeq genes. Characterization of these 12 candidate genes through whole-mount in situ hybridization of mouse embryos at embryonic day 9.5 suggested that CRKL, THAP7, and LZTR1 are CBE candidate genes. Conclusion: Our data suggest that duplication of 22q11.21 increases CBE risk and implicate a phenocritical region in disease formation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Draaken M.,University of Bonn | Mughal S.S.,University of Bonn | Pennimpede T.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics | Wolter S.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics | And 16 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) is a urogenital birth defect of varying severity. The causes of the BEEC are likely to be heterogeneous, with individual environmental or genetic risk factors still being largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify de novo causative copy number variations (CNVs) that contribute to the BEEC. METHODS Array-based molecular karyotyping was performed to screen 110 individuals with BEEC. Promising CNVs were tested for de novo occurrence by investigating parental DNAs. Genes located in regions of rearrangements were prioritized through expression analysis in mice to be sequenced in the complete cohort, to identify high-penetrance mutations involving small sequence changes. RESULTS A de novo 0.9 Mb microduplication involving chromosomal region 19p13.12 was identified in a single patient. This region harbors 20 validated RefSeq genes, and in situ hybridization data showed specific expression of the Wiz gene in regions surrounding the cloaca and the rectum between GD 9.5 and 13.5. Sanger sequencing of the complete cohort did not reveal any pathogenic alterations affecting the coding region of WIZ. CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests chromosomal region 19p13.12 as possibly involved in the development of CBE, but further studies are needed to prove a causal relation. The spatiotemporal expression patterns determined for the genes encompassed suggest a role for Wiz in the development of the phenotype. Our mutation screening, however, could not confirm that WIZ mutations are a frequent cause of CBE, although rare mutations might be detectable in larger patient samples. 19p13.12, microduplication, bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex, array-based molecular karyotyping, in situ hybridization analysis, copy number variations, WIZ. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Reutter H.,University of Bonn | Pennimpede T.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics | Wittler L.,Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics | Ebert A.-K.,University of Ulm | And 25 more authors.
Human molecular genetics | Year: 2014

Bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), the severe end of the urorectal malformation spectrum, has a profound impact on continence as well as sexual and renal functions. It is widely accepted that for the majority of cases the genetic basis appears to be multifactorial. Here, we report the first study which utilizes genome-wide association methods to analyze a cohort comprising patients presenting the most common BEEC form, classic bladder exstrophy (CBE), to identify common variation associated with risk for isolated CBE. We employed discovery and follow-up samples comprising 218 cases/865 controls and 78 trios in total, all of European descent. Our discovery sample identified a marker near SALL1, showing genome-wide significant association with CBE. However, analyses performed on follow-up samples did not add further support to these findings. We were also able to identify an association with CBE across our study samples (discovery: P = 8.88 × 10(-5); follow-up: P = 0.0025; combined: 1.09 × 10(-6)) in a highly conserved 32 kb intergenic region containing regulatory elements between WNT3 and WNT9B. Subsequent analyses in mice revealed expression for both genes in the genital region during stages relevant to the development of CBE in humans. Unfortunately, we were not able to replicate the suggestive signal for WNT3 and WNT9B in a sample that was enriched for non-CBE BEEC cases (P = 0.51). Our suggestive findings support the hypothesis that larger samples are warranted to identify association of common variation with CBE. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. Source


Qi L.,University of California at Davis | Wang M.,University of California at Davis | Yagnik G.,University of California at Davis | Mattheisen M.,University of Aarhus | And 10 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) is a severe congenital anomaly that represents a spectrum of urological abnormalities where parts or all of the distal urinary tract fail to close during development. Multiple lines of evidence strongly suggested p63 as a plausible candidate gene. We conducted a candidate gene association study to further investigate the role of p63 in human BEEC. METHODS: We conducted a family-based association study of p63 using 154 Caucasian patients with nonsyndromic BEEC and their unaffected parents. High throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was carried out using Illumina's Golden Gate Assay for 109 selected tagging SNPs localized within p63 with a minor allele frequency>0.01. Individual and haplotype SNP transmission disequilibrium tests were conducted using Plink and Haploview, respectively. We also examined parent-of-origin effects using paternal asymmetry tests implemented in FAMHAP (http://famhap.meb.uni-bonn.de/index.html). RESULTS: Nominally significant associations were identified between BEEC and six SNPs (rs17447782, rs1913720, rs6790167, rs9865857, rs1543969, rs4687100), and four haplotype blocks including or near these significant SNPs. Analysis of parent-of-origin effects showed significant results for seven SNPs (rs4118375, rs12696596, rs6779677, rs13091309, rs7642420, rs1913721, and rs1399774). None of these results remained significant after multiple testing correction. CONCLUSION: The altered transmission of p63 variants in nonsyndromic BEEC patients may be suggestive of its involvement in the disease etiology. Further and large multi-institutional collaborative studies are required to elucidate the role of p63 in nonsyndromic BEEC. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 97:759-763, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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