St Georges Hospital Medical School

London, United Kingdom

St Georges Hospital Medical School

London, United Kingdom
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Patent
St Georges Hospital Medical School | Date: 2017-04-26

The invention is in the field of growth of Mycobacteria. In particular, agents have been identified which enhance the growth of Mycobacterial species, which are naturally slow-growing. Such agents can therefore be used in the identification of Mycobacteria and in the diagnosis of Mycobacterial infections.


Patent
St Georges Hospital Medical School | Date: 2015-06-19

The invention is in the field of growth of Mycobacteria. In particular, agents have been identified which enhance the growth of Mycobacterial species, which are naturally slow-growing. Such agents can therefore be used in the identification of Mycobacteria and in the diagnosis of Mycobacterial infections.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: HCO-06-2015 | Award Amount: 2.98M | Year: 2015

Smoking is the largest avoidable cause of preventable morbidity worldwide. It causes most of the cases of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contributes to the development of other lung diseases. The control of smoking is considered as a highly important intervention for the prevention of lung diseases. Tobacco consumption is highly influenced by socioeconomic factors. SmokeFreeBrain aims to address the effectiveness of a multi-level variety of interventions aiming at smoking cessation in high risk target groups within High Middle Income Countries (HMIC) such as unemployed young adults, COPD and asthma patients, as well as within the general population in Low Middle Income Countries (LMIC). The project addresses existing approaches aiming to prevent lung diseases caused by tobacco while at the same time it develops new treatments and analyzes their contextual adaptability to the local and global health care system. SmokeFreeBrain follows an interdisciplinary approach exploiting consortiums expertise in various relevant fields in order to generate new knowledge. State of the art techniques in toxicology, pulmonary medicine, neuroscience and behavior will be utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of: (i) Public Service Announcement (PSA) against smoking, (ii) the use of electronic cigarettes with and without nicotine as a harm reduction approach and/or cessation aid, (iii) a specifically developed neurofeedback intervention protocol against smoking addiction, (iv) a specifically developed intervention protocol based on behavioral therapy, social media/mobile apps and short text messages (sms) and (v) pharmacologic interventions. The main objective of the project is to evaluate the interventions in terms of health economics, by studying their cost-effectiveness, and proposing a scalable plan and a clear pathway to embedding the proposed interventions into policy and practice both in LMIC as well as in HMIC.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-08-2014 | Award Amount: 8.00M | Year: 2015

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem, killing 1.5 million of people every year. The only currently available vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, is effective against severe childhood forms, but it demonstrates a variable efficacy against the pulmonary form of TB in adults. Many of these adult TB cases result from the reactivation of an initially controlled, latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Effective prophylactic vaccination remains the key long-term strategy for combating TB. Continued belief in reaching this goal requires unrelenting innovation in the formulation and delivery of candidate vaccines. It is also based on the assumption, that the failure of recent human vaccine trials could have been due to a sub-optimal vaccine design and delivery, and therefore should not erode the key principle that a TB vaccine is an attainable target. This proposal focuses on mucosal vaccination, which has been considered in the past, but not implemented efficiently. The innovation of the proposal is focused on several important aspects of vaccine development and testing, including the use of novel technologies for vaccine delivery, novel ways of specific targeting of mucosal immune cells and tissues, the use of polypeptides incorporating early and latent MTB antigens and putative CD8\ T cell epitopes, and application of novel tools for identifying early predictors and correlates of vaccine-induced protection. The overall objective is to design a vaccine that will induce a broad-ranging immune response to MTB both systemically and in the mucosa of the lungs, and provide the currently missing links in protective immunity to this pathogen.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.3.2-2 | Award Amount: 7.87M | Year: 2013

Diabetes (DM) triples the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Consequently, the alarming growth of type 2 DM in TB endemic countries and among people originating from TB-endemic countries poses a serious threat to global TB control. This project addresses the scarce evidence for many of the recently advocated guidelines for care and control of TB and DM, as well as our lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effect of DM on TB susceptibility and treatment outcome. We will use a comprehensive and integrated approach combining clinical, epidemiological and cutting edge expertise in laboratory sciences, bringing together a multi-disciplinary consortium linking field sites in Romania, Peru, South Africa and Indonesia, with leading laboratories in Germany, United Kingdom and the Netherlands. We will define the optimal and most cost-effective ways of screening TB patients for DM diabetes, and determine the prevalence of DM among TB patients and of TB in DM patients in the four countries. With regard to treatment, we will determine the level of DM management required during and after TB treatment, the safety and pharmacokinetics of metformin when combined with rifampicin, and the effect of hyperglycemia control on TB treatment outcome. To help establish the cellular basis and immunological pathways underlying the link between DM and TB we will provide new data on: gene expression data of TB patients with and without DM; ex vivo and in vitro Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulation data of different cell types, including macrophage subsets and adipocytes in the presence of high glucose and insulin; data regarding the role of common and more rare genetic variants in the combined susceptibility to TB and type 2 DM; and relevant functional genomics experiments. In summary, this project is expected to have significant impact both in improving basic knowledge on the link between TB and DM, as well as on prevention, therapeutic management and prognosis of TB-DM.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-10-2014 | Award Amount: 4.15M | Year: 2015

The PHOCNOSIS project aims at the development and the preclinical validation of a nanotechnology-based handheld point-of-care testing (POCT) analysis device for its application in the early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The diagnosis will be carried out by means of the fast (<10 minutes), ultra-sensitive (<1 ng/L) and label-free detection of multiple cardiac biomarkers, using a small volume of whole blood (<100 L). This POCT analysis device will significantly help in the implementation of mass screening programs, with the consequent impact on clinical management, reducing also costs of treatments, and increasing survival rates. The PHOCNOSIS analysis device will be based on two state-of-the-art technological elements in order to obtain a compact and highly sensitive final device. First, an integrated micro-/nanofluidic system will be used for biomarkers separation, purification and concentration, targeting an effective concentration increase by a factor greater than 1000x for the targeted biomarkers. Then, the concentrated biomarkers will be detected using a novel nanophotonic-based sensing technique, envisaging a final combined detection limit below 1 ng/L. This novel sensing technique allows us to obtain systems which are low-cost, compact and with a lower complexity, thus making them suitable for the development of portable devices for POCT. The PHOCNOSIS project will target the deployment of disposable biochips with an envisaged cost below 3 to be used in a handheld analysis device with an envisaged cost below 3000. Special attention will be paid within the PHOCNOSIS project to explore the potential deployment and commercialisation of the analysis device, by means of the involvement of relevant academic and industrial partners, as well as end users.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-ADG | Phase: ERC-ADG-2014 | Award Amount: 2.35M | Year: 2016

Fifteen years ago it was widely believed that asthma was an allergic/atopic disease caused by allergen exposure in infancy; this produced atopic sensitization and continued exposure resulted in eosinophilic airways inflammation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and reversible airflow obstruction. It is now clear that this model is at best incomplete. Less than one-half of asthma cases involve allergic (atopic) mechanisms, and most asthma in low-and-middle income countries is non-atopic. Westernization may be contributing to the global increases in asthma prevalence, but this process appears to involve changes in asthma susceptibility rather than increased exposure to established asthma risk factors. Understanding why these changes are occurring is essential in order to halt the growing global asthma epidemic.This will require a combination of epidemiological, clinical and basic science studies in a variety of environments. A key task is to reclassify asthma phenotypes. These are important to: (i) better understand the aetiological mechanisms of asthma; (ii) identify new causes; and (iii) identify new therapeutic measures. There are major opportunities to address these issues using new techniques for sample collection from the airways (sputum induction, nasal lavage), new methods of analysis (microbiome, epigenetics), and new bioinformatics methods for integrating data from multiple sources and levels. There is an unprecedented potential to go beyond the old atopic/non-atopic categorization of phenotypes. I will therefore conduct analyses to re-examine and reclassify asthma phenotypes. The key features are the inclusion of: (i) both high and low prevalence centres from both high income countries and low-and-middle income countries; (ii) much more detailed biomarker information than has been used for previous studies of asthma phenotypes; and (iii) new bioinformatics methods for integrating data from multiple sources and levels.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.4.2-1 | Award Amount: 7.88M | Year: 2014

Vancomycin is the critically important antibiotic to treat neonatal Late Onset Sepsis (LOS) due to Gram positive bacteria in neonates, including Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) and Staphylococcus aureus. These organisms also create biofilms which are extremely resistant to antibiotics. The increased incidence of LOS due to bacteria such as CoNS and MRSA in NICUs has led to a marked increased use of vancomycin, which is now the third commonest antibiotic used in European NICUs. However, a standardised dosing regimen for premature infants has not yet been defined and there is no data about the serum concentrations needed to ensure bacterial kill for CoNS in humans. In view of the lack of any firm dosage for neonates and infants, vancomycin has been included in the EMA list of off-patent drugs addressing unmet therapeutic needs in children. Accordingly NeoVanc consortium has already submitted a Paediatric Investigation Plan (PIP) which has provisionally received a favourable 120 day opinion and this application is built on what is included in the approved PIP. This project aims to:-develop a new age-appropriate formulation of vancomycin; define the circulating concentration of vancomycin that is needed to kill CoNS in in vitro biofilm and animal model, and use that data to derive the concentration and best PD target that will be maximally effective in neonates; define the neonatal dosage that is needed to attain the concentration that can kill CoNS and enterococci by conducting a systematic meta-analysis of all available PK data and develop an optimal dosing and therapeutic drug monitoring regimen. NeoVanc will then conduct a Phase 2 b randomised clinical trial to compare the proportion of neonates reaching the PD target derived from the pre-clinical studies when treated with the current standard vs new optimised treatment regimens and to obtain data on dosing, efficacy and short and long-term safety to be included in the SPCs leading to a PUMA.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.4.3 | Award Amount: 1.88M | Year: 2014

The aim of SEMCARE is to build a semantic data platform to support clinical trials. The platform will identify patient cohorts based on patient-level criteria (e.g. age, gender, diagnosis, indication, symptoms, lab results) scattered in heterogeneous clinical data. As most of patient-level data is unstructured, language technologies are necessary to extract and exploit the relevant data. Our platform combines the power of full text search with text analytics and semantic web technologies for a hybrid semantic full-text search. It will enable semantic integration of different data sources for information extraction, document retrieval, analytics and visualization.SEMCARE addresses the ever growing need to exploit medical data from clinical trials and for monitoring and improving healthcare delivery. The platform has the potential to provide for a more efficient, scalable method of patient recruitment for clinical trials; up to 80% of clinical trials fail to meet their patient enrolment quotas on time and SEMCARE will help prevent this. Recruitment delay currently causes up to $8 million per day in loss of revenue for the biopharmaceutical industry. The platform will also be capable to detect undiagnosed patients with rare diseases based on sign and symptom combinations. This has the potential to speed up the research on this group of diseases, which constitute a highly attractive market for pharmaceutical companies, up to 300,000 USD drug revenue per year and patient.The SEMCARE consortium includes passionate players from the demand and supply sides. Hospitals in three different European countries serve as pilot sites and have particular interests in applying SEMCARE in their clinical research activities. The SMEs AVERBIS and SYNAPSE have a clear interest in the exploitation of the results. Regarding commercialization, a pharmaceutical partner network that has a genuine interest in supporting the dissemination of our results will be established.


Patent
St Georges Hospital Medical School | Date: 2014-04-25

Methods and apparatus for obtaining probability density functions representing expected distributions of values of a parameter associated with an imaging modality are disclosed. The probability density functions are derived using data obtained from reference tissue volumes using the same imaging modality and at least one other type of imaging modality. The probability density functions are used to analyse data obtained from a volume of tissue of a patient in order to classify the tissue according to tissue type. Methods and apparatus are also disclosed in which deviations from a mean of an arctangent of ratios of first and second metabolite intensities in voxels are used to identify tissue types.

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