Kampala, Uganda
Kampala, Uganda

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PubMed | National Institute for Medical Research, Walter Sisulu University, St Francis Hospital Nsambya, University of Cape Town and 20 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology | Year: 2016

Despite widespread recognition that the burden of diabetes is rapidly growing in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, nationally representative estimates of unmet need for diabetes diagnosis and care are in short supply for the region. We use national population-based survey data to quantify diabetes prevalence and met and unmet need for diabetes diagnosis and care in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We further estimate demographic and economic gradients of met need for diabetes diagnosis and care.We did a pooled analysis of individual-level data from nationally representative population-based surveys that met the following inclusion criteria: the data were collected during 2005-15; the data were made available at the individual level; a biomarker for diabetes was available in the dataset; and the dataset included information on use of core health services for diabetes diagnosis and care. We first quantified the population in need of diabetes diagnosis and care by estimating the prevalence of diabetes across the surveys; we also quantified the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as a major risk factor for diabetes and an indicator of need for diabetes screening. Second, we determined the level of met need for diabetes diagnosis, preventive counselling, and treatment in both the diabetic and the overweight and obese population. Finally, we did survey fixed-effects regressions to establish the demographic and economic gradients of met need for diabetes diagnosis, counselling, and treatment.We pooled data from 12 nationally representative population-based surveys in sub-Saharan Africa, representing 38311 individuals with a biomarker measurement for diabetes. Across the surveys, the median prevalence of diabetes was 5% (range 2-14) and the median prevalence of overweight or obesity was 27% (range 16-68). We estimated seven measures of met need for diabetes-related care across the 12 surveys: (1) percentage of the overweight or obese population who received a blood glucose measurement (median 22% [IQR 11-37]); and percentage of the diabetic population who reported that they (2) had ever received a blood glucose measurement (median 36% [IQR 27-63]); (3) had ever been told that they had diabetes (median 27% [IQR 22-51]); (4) had ever been counselled to lose weight (median 15% [IQR 13-23]); (5) had ever been counselled to exercise (median 15% [IQR 11-30]); (6) were using oral diabetes drugs (median 25% [IQR 18-42]); and (7) were using insulin (median 11% [IQR 6-13]). Compared with those aged 15-39 years, the adjusted odds of met need for diabetes diagnosis (measures 1-3) were 222 to 353 (40-54 years) and 382 to 501 (55 years) times higher. The adjusted odds of met need for diabetes diagnosis also increased consistently with educational attainment and were between 307 and 456 higher for the group with 8 years or more of education than for the group with less than 1 year of education. Finally, need for diabetes care was significantly more likely to be met (measures 4-7) in the oldest age and highest educational groups.Diabetes has already reached high levels of prevalence in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Large proportions of need for diabetes diagnosis and care in the region remain unmet, but the patterns of unmet need vary widely across the countries in our sample. Novel health policies and programmes are urgently needed to increase awareness of diabetes and to expand coverage of preventive counselling, diagnosis, and linkage to diabetes care. Because the probability of met need for diabetes diagnosis and care consistently increases with age and educational attainment, policy makers should pay particular attention to improved access to diabetes services for young adults and people with low educational attainment.None.


PubMed | Mental Health and Substance Abuse, St Francis Hospital Nsambya, Uganda Public Health Fellowship Program, Ministry of Health and Makerere University
Type: | Journal: Global health action | Year: 2016

There are limited data on levels of alcohol use in most sub-Saharan African countries.We analyzed data from Ugandas non-communicable diseases risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to identify alcohol use prevalence and associated factors.The survey used the World Health Organization STEPS tool to collect data, including the history of alcohol use. Alcohol users were categorized into low-, medium-, and high-end users. Participants were also classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder if, over the past 12 months, they were unable to stop drinking alcohol once they had started drinking, and/or failed to do what was normally expected of them because of drinking alcohol, and/or needed an alcoholic drink first in the morning to get going after a heavy drinking session the night before. Weighted logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with medium- to high-end alcohol use.Of the 3,956 participants, 1,062 (26.8%) were current alcohol users, including 314 (7.9%) low-end, 246 (6.2%) medium-end, and 502 (12.7%) high-end users. A total of 386 (9.8%) were classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder. Male participants were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users compared to females; adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.34 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.88-2.91]. Compared to residents in eastern Uganda, participants in central and western Uganda were more likely to be medium- to high-end users; AOR=1.47 (95% CI=1.01-2.12) and AOR=1.89 (95% CI=1.31-2.72), respectively. Participants aged 30-49 years and those aged 50-69 years were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users, compared to those aged 18-29 years, AOR=1.49 (95% CI=1.16-1.91) and AOR=2.08 (95% CI=1.52-2.84), respectively.The level of alcohol use among adults in Uganda is high, and 9.8% of the adult population has an alcohol-use-related disorder.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, St Francis Hospital Nsambya and Copenhagen University
Type: | Journal: Preventing chronic disease | Year: 2015

Few studies have examined the health consequences of living in a household with a person who has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We assessed the association of sharing a household with a person with diagnosed T2D and risk factors for cardio-metabolic diseases in Uganda, a low-income country.Ninety households with 437 residents in southwestern Uganda were studied from December 2012 through March 2013. Forty-five of the households had a member with diagnosed T2D (hereafter diabetic household), and 45 households had no member with diagnosed T2D (hereafter nondiabetic household). We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hypertension, anthropometry, aerobic capacity, physical activity, nutrition, smoking, and diabetes-related knowledge of people without diagnosed T2D living in diabetic and nondiabetic households.People living in diabetic households had a significantly higher level of diabetes-related knowledge, lower levels of FPG (5.6 mmol/L vs 6.0 mmol/L), and fewer smoked (1.3% vs 12.9%) than residents of nondiabetic households. HbA1c was significantly lower in people aged 30 years or younger (5.2% vs 5.4%) and in males (5.2% vs 5.4%) living in diabetic households compared to residents of nondiabetic households. No differences were found between the 2 types of households in overweight and obesity, upper-arm fat area, intake of staple foods or cooking oil, or physical activity.Sharing a household with a person with T2D may have unexpected benefits on the risk factor profile for cardio-metabolic diseases, probably because of improved health behaviors and a closer connection with the health care system. Thus, future studies should consider the household for interventions targeting primary and secondary prevention of T2D.


PubMed | National Institute of Medical Research, Ifakara Health Institute, St Francis Hospital Nsambya, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and 2 more.
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: The Journal of infection | Year: 2015

Following endorsement by the World Health Organisation, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay has been widely incorporated into algorithms for the diagnosis of adult tuberculosis (TB). However, data on its performance in children remain scarce. This prospective, multi-centre study evaluated the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis in children.Children older than eight weeks and younger than 16 years with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled at three TB endemic settings in Tanzania and Uganda, and assigned to five well-defined case definition categories: culture-confirmed TB, highly probable TB, probable TB, not TB, or indeterminate. The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF was assessed using culture-confirmed TB cases as reference standard.In total, 451 children were enrolled. 37 (8%) had culture-confirmed TB, 48 (11%) highly probably TB and 62 probable TB (13%). The Xpert MTB/RIF assay had a sensitivity of 68% (95% CI, 50%-82%) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 97%-100%); detecting 1.7 times more culture-confirmed cases than smear microscopy with a similar time to detection. Xpert MTB/RIF was positive in 2% (1/48) of highly probable and in 3% (2/62) of probable TB cases.Xpert MTB/RIF provided timely results with moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity compared to culture. Low yields in children with highly probable and probable TB remain problematic.


Larsson M.,Lund University | Ross M.W.,University of Minnesota | Tumwine G.,St Francis Hospital Nsambya | Agardh A.,Lund University
Global Health Action | Year: 2016

Background: Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. Objective: To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. Design: In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Results: Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7-5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.0, respectively). Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1-4.8), exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7-3.9), frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.8), and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04-3.3). The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1-8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-5.8) and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6-7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.4) persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions: These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of same-sex sexuality experienced students. Targeted interventions that integrate mental health and trauma response are critical to meet the health needs of this population. © 2016 Markus Larsson et al.


PubMed | University of Minnesota, Lund University and St Francis Hospital Nsambya
Type: | Journal: Global health action | Year: 2016

Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited.To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality.In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex.Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7-5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.0, respectively). Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1-4.8), exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7-3.9), frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.8), and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04-3.3). The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1-8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-5.8) and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6-7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.4) persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking.These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of same-sex sexuality experienced students. Targeted interventions that integrate mental health and trauma response are critical to meet the health needs of this population.


Nielsen J.,Copenhagen University | Bahendeka S.K.,St Francis Hospital Nsambya | Bygbjerg I.C.,Copenhagen University | Meyrowitsch D.W.,Copenhagen University | Whyte S.R.,Copenhagen University
Health Education and Behavior | Year: 2015

Background. Health professionals assign diabetes patients “homework” in that they give them instructions on how to manage diabetes, recognizing that most diabetes care takes place in the home setting. We studied how homework is practiced and whether knowledge and behavioral practices related to diabetes self-management diffuse from patients to their housemates. Method. This mixed-methods study combined quantitative data from a household survey including 90 rural Ugandan households (50% had a member with type 2 diabetes [T2D]) with qualitative data from health facilities and interviews with 10 patients with T2D. Focus for data collection was knowledge and practices related to diabetes homework. A generalized mixed model was used to analyze quantitative data, while content analysis was used for qualitative data analysis. Results. Patients with T2D generally understood the diabetes homework assignments given by health professionals and carried out their homework with support from housemates. Although adherence to recommended diet was variable, housemates were likely to eat a healthier diet than if no patient with T2D lived in the household. Knowledge related to diabetes homework diffused from the patients to housemates and beyond to neighbors and family living elsewhere. Knowledge about primary prevention of T2D was almost absent among health staff, patients, and relatives. Conclusions. Homework practices related to T2D improve diabetes-related knowledge and may facilitate healthy eating in nondiabetic housemates. These findings suggest that having a chronic disease in the household provides an opportunity to improve health in the entire household and address the lack of knowledge about prevention of T2D. © 2015, Society for Public Health Education.


Nielsen J.,Copenhagen University | Bahendeka S.K.,St Francis Hospital Nsambya | Bygbjerg I.C.,Copenhagen University | Meyrowitsch D.W.,Copenhagen University | Whyte S.R.,Copenhagen University
Global Public Health | Year: 2016

Non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) are increasing rapidly in most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries like Uganda. Little attention has been given to how patients with T2D try to achieve treatment when the availability of public health care for their disease is limited, as is the case in most SSA countries. In this paper we focus on the landscape of availability of care and the therapeutic journeys of patients within that landscape. Based on fieldwork in south-western Uganda including 10 case studies, we explore the diabetes treatment options in the area and what it takes to access the available treatment. We analyse the resources patients need to use the available treatment options, and demonstrate that the patients’ journeys to access and maintain treatment are facilitated by the knowledge and support of their therapy management groups. Patients access treatment more effectively, if they and their family have money, useful social relations, and knowledge, together with the capacity to communicate with health staff. Patients coming from households with high socio-economic status (SES) are more likely to have all of these resources, while for patients with low or medium SES, lack of economic resources increases the importance of connections within the health system. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Agardh A.,Lund University | Tumwine G.,St Francis Hospital Nsambya | Ostergren P.-O.,Lund University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Introduction: More knowledge is needed about structural factors in society that affect risky sexual behaviors. Educational institutions such as universities provide an opportune arena for interventions among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sociodemographic and religious factors and their impact on sexual behavior among university students in Uganda. Methods: In 2005, 980 university students (response rate 80%) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Validated instruments were used to assess socio-demographic and religious factors and sexual behavior. Logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: Our findings indicated that 37% of the male and 49% of the female students had not previously had sex. Of those with sexual experience, 46% of the males and 23% of the females had had three or more sexual partners, and 32% of the males and 38% of the females did not consistently use condoms. For those who rated religion as less important in their family, the probability of early sexual activity and having had a high number of lifetime partners increased by a statistically significant amount (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.4 and OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3, respectively). However, the role of religion seemed to have no impact on condom use. Being of Protestant faith interacted with gender: among those who had debuted sexually, Protestant female students were more likely to have had three or more lifetime partners; the opposite was true for Protestant male students. Conclusion: Religion emerged as an important determinant of sexual behavior among Ugandan university students. Our findings correlate with the increasing number of conservative religious injunctions against premarital sex directed at young people in many countries with a high burden. of HIV/AIDS. Such influence of religion must be taken into account in order to gain a deeper understanding of the forces that shape sexual behavior in Uganda. © 2011 Agardh et al.


PubMed | St Francis Hospital Nsambya and Copenhagen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health education & behavior : the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education | Year: 2016

Health professionals assign diabetes patients homework in that they give them instructions on how to manage diabetes, recognizing that most diabetes care takes place in the home setting. We studied how homework is practiced and whether knowledge and behavioral practices related to diabetes self-management diffuse from patients to their housemates.This mixed-methods study combined quantitative data from a household survey including 90 rural Ugandan households (50% had a member with type 2 diabetes [T2D]) with qualitative data from health facilities and interviews with 10 patients with T2D. Focus for data collection was knowledge and practices related to diabetes homework. A generalized mixed model was used to analyze quantitative data, while content analysis was used for qualitative data analysis.Patients with T2D generally understood the diabetes homework assignments given by health professionals and carried out their homework with support from housemates. Although adherence to recommended diet was variable, housemates were likely to eat a healthier diet than if no patient with T2D lived in the household. Knowledge related to diabetes homework diffused from the patients to housemates and beyond to neighbors and family living elsewhere. Knowledge about primary prevention of T2D was almost absent among health staff, patients, and relatives.Homework practices related to T2D improve diabetes-related knowledge and may facilitate healthy eating in nondiabetic housemates. These findings suggest that having a chronic disease in the household provides an opportunity to improve health in the entire household and address the lack of knowledge about prevention of T2D.

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