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Woelnerhanssen B.,University of Basel | Peterli R.,St. Claraspital | Steinert R.E.,University of Basel | Peters T.,St. Claraspital | And 2 more authors.
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) lead to rapid improvement in insulin sensitivity even before weight loss occurs. Adipokines are closely linked to obesity and insulin resistance. To date, it is unclear whether the different anatomic changes of the various bariatric procedures have different effects on hormones of adipocyte origin. In the present prospective, randomized study, we compared the 1-year follow-up results of LRYGB and LSG concerning weight loss, metabolic control, and fasting adipokine levels. Methods: Of 23 nondiabetic morbidly obese patients, 12 were randomized to LRYGB and 11 to LSG. The patients were investigated before and 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months after surgery. The fasting levels of glucose, insulin, lipids, and adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, and fibroblast growth factor-21) were analyzed. Results: The body weight decreased markedly (P <.001) after either procedure (percentage of weight loss 16.4% ± 1.3%, 24.8% ± 1.7%, and 34.5% ± 2.7% after LRYGB and 13.1% ± 1.1%, 20.7% ± 1.5%, and 27.9% ± 2.6% after LSG at 2, 6, and 12 mo, respectively). The Homeostasis Model Assessment Index declined from 8.0 ± 1.5 preoperatively to 2.9 ±.2 at 12 months after LRYGB and from 7.5 ± 1.7 preoperatively to 3.3 ±.3 at 12 months after LSG. The lipid profiles were normalized. The concentrations of circulating leptin levels decreased by almost 50% as early as 1 week postoperatively and continued to decrease until 12 months postoperatively. Adiponectin increased progressively. The fibroblast growth factor-21 levels did not change over time. No difference was found between the LRYGB and LSG groups. Conclusion: Both procedures led to significant weight loss associated with the resolution of the metabolic syndrome. The serum leptin levels decreased and adiponectin increased with weight loss, paralleled by improved insulin sensitivity. © 2011 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery.


Sieber P.,St. Claraspital | Gass M.,St. Claraspital | Kern B.,St. Claraspital | Peters T.,The Interdisciplinary Center | And 2 more authors.
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases | Year: 2014

Background Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is gaining popularity, but studies reporting long-term results are still rare. The objective of this study was to present the 5-year outcome concerning weight loss, modification of co-morbidities, and late complications. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort with a minimal follow-up of 5 years. A total of 68 patients underwent LSG either as primary bariatric procedure (n = 41) or as redo operation after failed laparoscopic gastric banding (n = 27) between August 2004 and December 2007. At the time of LSG, the mean body mass index (BMI) was 43.0±8.0 kg/m2, the mean age 43.1±10.1 years, and 78% were female. The follow-up rate was 100% at 1 year postoperatively, 97% after 2 years, and 91% after 5 years; the mean follow-up time was 5.9±0.8 years. Results The average excessive BMI loss was 61.5%±23.4% after 1 year, 61.1%±23.4% after 2 years, and 57.4%±24.7% after 5 years. Co-morbidities improved considerably; a remission of type 2 diabetes could be reached at 85%. The following complications were observed: 1 leak (1.5%), 2 incisional hernias (2.9%), and new-onset gastroesophageal reflux in 11 patients (16.2%). Reoperation due to insufficient weight loss was necessary in 8 patients (11.8%). Conclusions LSG was effective 5.9 years postoperatively with an excessive BMI loss of almost 60% and a considerable improvement or even remission of co-morbidities. © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery.


Yu Y.-H.,Greenwich Hospital | Yu Y.-H.,Northeast Medical Group | Vasselli J.R.,Columbia University | Zhang Y.,Columbia University | And 4 more authors.
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2015

Body weight is determined via both metabolic and hedonic mechanisms. Metabolic regulation of body weight centres around the 'body weight set point', which is programmed by energy balance circuitry in the hypothalamus and other specific brain regions. The metabolic body weight set point has a genetic basis, but exposure to an obesogenic environment may elicit allostatic responses and upward drift of the set point, leading to a higher maintained body weight. However, an elevated steady-state body weight may also be achieved without an alteration of the metabolic set point, via sustained hedonic over-eating, which is governed by the reward system of the brain and can override homeostatic metabolic signals. While hedonic signals are potent influences in determining food intake, metabolic regulation involves the active control of both food intake and energy expenditure. When overweight is due to elevation of the metabolic set point ('metabolic obesity'), energy expenditure theoretically falls onto the standard energy-mass regression line. In contrast, when a steady-state weight is above the metabolic set point due to hedonic over-eating ('hedonic obesity'), a persistent compensatory increase in energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass may be demonstrable. Recognition of the two types of obesity may lead to more effective treatment and prevention of obesity. © 2015 The Authors.


Peterli R.,St. Claraspital | Steinert R.E.,University of Basel | Woelnerhanssen B.,University of Basel | Peters T.,St. Claraspital | And 5 more authors.
Obesity Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: The mechanisms of amelioration of glycemic control early after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are not fully understood. Methods: In this prospective, randomized 1-year trial, outcomes of LRYGB and LSG patients were compared, focusing on possibly responsible mechanisms. Twelve patients were randomized to LRYGB and 11 to LSG. These non-diabetic patients were investigated before and 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months after surgery.A standard test meal was given after an overnight fast, and blood samples were collected before, during, and after food intake for hormone profiles (cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY)). Results: In both groups, body weight and BMI decreased markedly and comparably leading to an identical improvement of abnormal glycemic control (HOMA index). Postsurgery, patients had markedly increased postprandial plasma GLP-1 and PYY levels (p<0.05) with ensuing improvement in glucose homeostasis. At 12 months, LRYGB ghrelin levels approached preoperative values. The postprandial, physiologic fluctuation returned, however, while LSG ghrelin levels were still markedly attenuated. One year postoperatively, CCK concentrations after test meals increased less in the LRYGB group than they did in the LSG group, with the latter showing significantly higher maximal CCK concentrations (p<0.012 vs. LRYGB). Conclusions: Bypassing the foregut is not the only mechanism responsible for improved glucose homeostasis. The balance between foregut (ghrelin, CCK) and hindgut (GLP-1, PYY) hormones is a key to understanding the underlying mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2012.


Harm F.,University of Basel | Zuercher M.,University of Basel | Bassi M.,St. Claraspital | Ummenhofer W.,University of Basel
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Inappropriately cuffed tracheal tubes can lead to inadequate ventilation or silent aspiration, or to serious tracheal damage. Cuff pressures are of particular importance during aeromedical transport as they increase due to decreased atmospheric pressure at flight level. We hypothesised, that cuff pressures are frequently too high in emergency and critically ill patients but are dependent on providers' professional background.Methods: Tracheal cuff pressures in patients intubated before arrival of a helicopter-based rescue team were prospectively recorded during a 12-month period. Information about the method used for initial cuff pressure assessment, profession of provider and time since intubation was collected by interview during patient handover. Indications for helicopter missions were either Intensive Care Unit (ICU) transports or emergency transfers. ICU transports were between ICUs of two hospitals. Emergency transfers were either evacuation from the scene or transfer from an emergency department to a higher facility.Results: This study included 101 patients scheduled for aeromedical transport. Median cuff pressure measured at handover was 45 (25.0/80.0) cmH2O; range, 8-120 cmH2O. There was no difference between patient characteristics and tracheal tube-size or whether anaesthesia personnel or non-anaesthesia personnel inflated the cuff (30 (24.8/70.0) cmH2O vs. 50 (28.0/90.0) cmH2O); p = 0.113.With regard to mission type (63 patients underwent an emergency transfer, 38 patients an ICU transport), median cuff pressure was different: 58 (30.0/100.0) cmH2O in emergency transfers vs. 30 (20.0/45.8) cmH2O in inter-ICU transports; p < 0.001. For cuff pressure assessment by the intubating team, a manometer had been applied in 2 of 59 emergency transfers and in 20 of 34 inter-ICU transports (method was unknown for 4 cases each). If a manometer was used, median cuff pressure was 27 (20.0/30.0) cmH2O, if not 70 (47.3/102.8) cmH2O; p < 0.001.Conclusions: Cuff pressures in the pre-hospital setting and in intensive care units are often too high. Interestingly, there is no significant difference between non-anaesthesia and anaesthesia personnel. Acceptable cuff pressures are best achieved when a cuff pressure manometer has been used. This method seems to be the only feasible one and is recommended for general use. © 2013 Harm et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Wolnerhanssen B.,University of Basel | Peterli R.,St. Claraspital
Digestive Surgery | Year: 2014

In the biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) type duodenal switch, sleeve gastrectomy was applied as the restrictive part instead of a horizontal gastrectomy in the original Scopinaro type BPD. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was used as a first step in a staged concept for high-risk patients undergoing bariatric surgery. However, it is now being increasingly favored as a stand-alone procedure. This article discusses the history, surgical technique, early results, metabolic effects, mid- to long-term results regarding weight loss, improvement of comorbidities and quality of life, management of complications and indications. LSG is a safe and effective bariatric procedure with satisfying weight loss results and effects on comorbidities. Further data are required to assess long-term effectiveness and safety of LSG. In patients with very high initial BMI, LSG can be used in a staged concept. Other indications are: in cases with dense adhesions of the small bowel, patients with inflammatory bowel disease and patients where repeated endoscopy of the duodenum is necessary. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Grunder G.,University of Basel | Guenin M.-O.,St. Claraspital | Ackermann C.,St. Claraspital | Peterli R.,St. Claraspital | Von Flue M.,St. Claraspital
Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery | Year: 2011

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the use of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) and antimicrobial prophylaxis in elective colorectal surgery in Switzerland. Methods: Ninety-eight heads of surgical departments in Switzerland and 42 visceral surgeons in private practice were asked to answer an 18-item questionnaire in October 2008 about arguments in favor of or against MBP. The participants also indicated whether they use MBP and antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery, and if so, what agents were used. Of the participants, 117/140 (83%) responded. Additional data were collected pertaining to the respondents' experience and work situation. Results: MBP was used significantly more often for rectal surgery than for left colonic resections (83% vs. 53%; p∈<∈0.001) and more often for left than for right colonic resections (53% vs. 43%; p=0.001), regardless of the open or laparoscopic approach. Younger surgeons and surgeons with a higher case load in colorectal surgery used MBP significantly less frequently in open right colonic resections. For MBP, cathartics were used in 90% of patients, and enemas were used in 10% of patients. Of the respondents, 37% considered MBP to be useful, even very useful. Based on the literature, because of introduction of fast-track protocols or for considerations of patient comfort, 86% of the respondents had changed the bowel preparation regime during the last 10 years in terms of a reduction of the quantity of cathartics or restricted the indications for MBP. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was used by 100% of the respondents, 88% used a single prophylactic dose only, while 70% administered the antibiotics 30-59 min before the incision. Most of the surgeons used second-generation cephalosporins in combination with metronidazole, and 24% changed the antibiotic agent or reduced the duration of administration of antibiotics during the last 10 years. Conclusions: MBP is often used in open and laparoscopic rectal surgery, but not in right colonic resections. Scientific evidence regarding MBP has yielded a rethinking about rigorous bowel preparation regimes. As of now, surgeons in Switzerland are not yet unanimously ready to abandon MBP in elective colorectal surgery. In Switzerland, surgeons are influenced by the benefit of antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Soler M.,St. Claraspital
Respiration | Year: 2014

Anti-IgE treatment for severe allergic asthma has been available for more than seven years now. This treatment has clear clinical benefits and a good safety record. However, important questions concerning long-term dosing and treatment duration remain unanswered. This paper discusses the available information concerning the long-term use of omalizumab. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Barone Prof. C.,University Cattolica Del ore | Koeberle D.,St. Claraspital | Metselaar H.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Parisi G.,S Maria Del Prato Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2013

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease, often associated with underlying conditions, like cirrhosis or other relevant co-morbidities that worsen the prognosis and make the clinical management more challenging. Current recommendations emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach for the management of HCC patients and stress the crucial role of careful prevention and the management of cirrhosis-associated complications. This article discusses the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of HCC patients. Current recommendations for the treatment of cirrhotic patients with HCC are also reviewed. ©The Author 2013.


Zellweger T.,St Claraspital | Sturm S.,University of Basel | Rey S.,University of Basel | Zlobec I.,University of Bern | And 6 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2013

Patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) are usually treated with androgen withdrawal. While this therapy is initially effective, nearly all PCs become refractory to it. As hormone receptors play a crucial role in this process, we constructed a tissue microarray consisting of PC samples from 107 hormone-naïve (HN) and 101 castration-resistant (CR) PC patients and analyzed the androgen receptor (AR) gene copy number and the protein expression profiles of AR, Serin210-phosphorylated AR (pAR210), estrogen receptor (ER)β, ERα and the proliferation marker Ki67. The amplification of the AR gene was virtually restricted to CR PC and was significantly associated with increased AR protein expression (P<0.0001) and higher tumor cell proliferation (P=0.001). Strong AR expression was observed in a subgroup of HN PC patients with an adverse prognosis. In contrast, the absence of AR expression in CR PC was significantly associated with a poor overall survival. While pAR210 was predominantly found in CR PC patients (P<0.0001), pAR210 positivity was observed in a subgroup of HN PC patients with a poor survival (P<0.05). Epithelial ERα expression was restricted to CR PC cells (9%). ERβ protein expression was found in 38% of both HN and CR PCs, but was elevated in matched CR PC specimens. Similar to pAR210, the presence of ERβ in HN patients was significantly associated with an adverse prognosis (P<0.005). Our results strongly suggest a major role for pAR210 and ERβ in HN PC. The expression of these markers might be directly involved in CR tumor growth. Copyright © 2013 Society for Endocrinology.

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