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Basel, Switzerland

Yu Y.-H.,Weight Loss and Diabetes Center | Yu Y.-H.,Northeast Medical Group | Vasselli J.R.,Columbia University | Zhang Y.,Columbia University | And 4 more authors.
Obesity Reviews

Body weight is determined via both metabolic and hedonic mechanisms. Metabolic regulation of body weight centres around the 'body weight set point', which is programmed by energy balance circuitry in the hypothalamus and other specific brain regions. The metabolic body weight set point has a genetic basis, but exposure to an obesogenic environment may elicit allostatic responses and upward drift of the set point, leading to a higher maintained body weight. However, an elevated steady-state body weight may also be achieved without an alteration of the metabolic set point, via sustained hedonic over-eating, which is governed by the reward system of the brain and can override homeostatic metabolic signals. While hedonic signals are potent influences in determining food intake, metabolic regulation involves the active control of both food intake and energy expenditure. When overweight is due to elevation of the metabolic set point ('metabolic obesity'), energy expenditure theoretically falls onto the standard energy-mass regression line. In contrast, when a steady-state weight is above the metabolic set point due to hedonic over-eating ('hedonic obesity'), a persistent compensatory increase in energy expenditure per unit metabolic mass may be demonstrable. Recognition of the two types of obesity may lead to more effective treatment and prevention of obesity. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Harm F.,University of Basel | Zuercher M.,University of Basel | Bassi M.,St. Claraspital | Ummenhofer W.,University of Basel
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine

Background: Inappropriately cuffed tracheal tubes can lead to inadequate ventilation or silent aspiration, or to serious tracheal damage. Cuff pressures are of particular importance during aeromedical transport as they increase due to decreased atmospheric pressure at flight level. We hypothesised, that cuff pressures are frequently too high in emergency and critically ill patients but are dependent on providers' professional background.Methods: Tracheal cuff pressures in patients intubated before arrival of a helicopter-based rescue team were prospectively recorded during a 12-month period. Information about the method used for initial cuff pressure assessment, profession of provider and time since intubation was collected by interview during patient handover. Indications for helicopter missions were either Intensive Care Unit (ICU) transports or emergency transfers. ICU transports were between ICUs of two hospitals. Emergency transfers were either evacuation from the scene or transfer from an emergency department to a higher facility.Results: This study included 101 patients scheduled for aeromedical transport. Median cuff pressure measured at handover was 45 (25.0/80.0) cmH2O; range, 8-120 cmH2O. There was no difference between patient characteristics and tracheal tube-size or whether anaesthesia personnel or non-anaesthesia personnel inflated the cuff (30 (24.8/70.0) cmH2O vs. 50 (28.0/90.0) cmH2O); p = 0.113.With regard to mission type (63 patients underwent an emergency transfer, 38 patients an ICU transport), median cuff pressure was different: 58 (30.0/100.0) cmH2O in emergency transfers vs. 30 (20.0/45.8) cmH2O in inter-ICU transports; p < 0.001. For cuff pressure assessment by the intubating team, a manometer had been applied in 2 of 59 emergency transfers and in 20 of 34 inter-ICU transports (method was unknown for 4 cases each). If a manometer was used, median cuff pressure was 27 (20.0/30.0) cmH2O, if not 70 (47.3/102.8) cmH2O; p < 0.001.Conclusions: Cuff pressures in the pre-hospital setting and in intensive care units are often too high. Interestingly, there is no significant difference between non-anaesthesia and anaesthesia personnel. Acceptable cuff pressures are best achieved when a cuff pressure manometer has been used. This method seems to be the only feasible one and is recommended for general use. © 2013 Harm et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Wolnerhanssen B.,University of Basel | Peterli R.,St. Claraspital
Digestive Surgery

In the biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) type duodenal switch, sleeve gastrectomy was applied as the restrictive part instead of a horizontal gastrectomy in the original Scopinaro type BPD. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was used as a first step in a staged concept for high-risk patients undergoing bariatric surgery. However, it is now being increasingly favored as a stand-alone procedure. This article discusses the history, surgical technique, early results, metabolic effects, mid- to long-term results regarding weight loss, improvement of comorbidities and quality of life, management of complications and indications. LSG is a safe and effective bariatric procedure with satisfying weight loss results and effects on comorbidities. Further data are required to assess long-term effectiveness and safety of LSG. In patients with very high initial BMI, LSG can be used in a staged concept. Other indications are: in cases with dense adhesions of the small bowel, patients with inflammatory bowel disease and patients where repeated endoscopy of the duodenum is necessary. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Anti-IgE treatment for severe allergic asthma has been available for more than seven years now. This treatment has clear clinical benefits and a good safety record. However, important questions concerning long-term dosing and treatment duration remain unanswered. This paper discusses the available information concerning the long-term use of omalizumab. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Zellweger T.,St. Claraspital | Sturm S.,University of Basel | Rey S.,University of Basel | Zlobec I.,University of Bern | And 6 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer

Patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) are usually treated with androgen withdrawal. While this therapy is initially effective, nearly all PCs become refractory to it. As hormone receptors play a crucial role in this process, we constructed a tissue microarray consisting of PC samples from 107 hormone-naïve (HN) and 101 castration-resistant (CR) PC patients and analyzed the androgen receptor (AR) gene copy number and the protein expression profiles of AR, Serin210-phosphorylated AR (pAR210), estrogen receptor (ER)β, ERα and the proliferation marker Ki67. The amplification of the AR gene was virtually restricted to CR PC and was significantly associated with increased AR protein expression (P<0.0001) and higher tumor cell proliferation (P=0.001). Strong AR expression was observed in a subgroup of HN PC patients with an adverse prognosis. In contrast, the absence of AR expression in CR PC was significantly associated with a poor overall survival. While pAR210 was predominantly found in CR PC patients (P<0.0001), pAR210 positivity was observed in a subgroup of HN PC patients with a poor survival (P<0.05). Epithelial ERα expression was restricted to CR PC cells (9%). ERβ protein expression was found in 38% of both HN and CR PCs, but was elevated in matched CR PC specimens. Similar to pAR210, the presence of ERβ in HN patients was significantly associated with an adverse prognosis (P<0.005). Our results strongly suggest a major role for pAR210 and ERβ in HN PC. The expression of these markers might be directly involved in CR tumor growth. Copyright © 2013 Society for Endocrinology. Source

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