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Alfa M.J.,Diagnostic Services of Manitoba | Alfa M.J.,University of Manitoba | Alfa M.J.,St Boniface Research Center | Olson N.,St Boniface Research Center | Murray B.-L.,St Boniface Research Center
American Journal of Infection Control

Background The objectives of this study were to recommend sample collection method(s) based on relative soiling in patient-used gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes and determine whether the published benchmarks for protein, bioburden, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) remain relevant for pump-assisted manual cleaning. Methods Patient-used gastroscopes, duodenoscopes, and colonoscopes were sampled before and after manual cleaning and assessed for protein, bioburden, and ATP levels. The biopsy port (BP) to distal end (D) sample was collected using 20 mL of sterile reverse-osmosis water. After a 200-mL flush, the umbilical (UM) to BP portion was sampled by flushing 40 mL from the UM to the D. Results The BP to D portion of the suction biopsy channel contained 83% of ATP residuals. Despite cleaning with brushing and a flushing pump, 25% of gastroscopes exceeded the ATP benchmark of 200 relative light units (RLU), whereas all duodenoscopes and colonoscopes had <200 RLU after cleaning. The protein and bioburden residuals after pump-assisted cleaning were consistently lower than existing benchmarks. Conclusion Sampling the suction biopsy channel from BP to D detected the most residuals from patient-used GI endoscopes. The protein and bioburden benchmarks for pump-assisted cleaning can be lowered, but 200 RLU is still adequate for ATP. © 2014 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Source

Alfa M.J.,Diagnostic Services of Manitoba | Alfa M.J.,University of Manitoba | Alfa M.J.,St Boniface Research Center | Olson N.,St Boniface Research Center
American Journal of Infection Control

Background Because automated instrument washer-disinfectors (WD) are widely used in health care to reprocess a variety of medical instruments, we developed a study to compare 3 cleaning indicators to determine whether they detected suboptimal temperature, time, enzymatic detergent, and fluid action in a washer-disinfector. Methods The Miele WD was used for this comparison. One optimal cycle and 14 cycles with suboptimal enzymatic detergent, cleaning time, temperature, or inactive spray arms were evaluated. The cleaning indicators evaluated included the following: Pinnacle Monitor for Automated Enzymatic Cleaning Process (PNCL), Wash-Checks (WC), and TOSI. The scoring system for all 3 indicators was harmonized to a common scale. Soiled tweezers were included in each cycle evaluated. Results The PNCL, TOSI, and WC cleaning indicators showed significantly more failures at 40 C compared with 60 C (100% vs 0% for PNCL, 17% vs 0% for TOSI, and 60% vs 22% for WC, respectively). There were significantly more failures at suboptimal temperatures with a 2- versus 4-minute cycle (100% vs 0% for PNCL, 17% vs 0% for TOSI, and 17% vs 0% for WC, respectively, for 40 C cycles). Despite suboptimal cleaning cycles, all soiled tweezers looked clean. Conclusion All 3 cleaning indicators responded to suboptimal WD conditions; however, the PNCL was the most affected by alterations in the cycle conditions evaluated. In simulated use testing, cleaning indicators provided a more sensitive audit tool compared with visual inspection of soiled instruments after automated cleaning. Source

Verkhratsky A.,University of Manchester | Verkhratsky A.,Ikerbasque | Verkhratsky A.,Kazan Federal University | Fernyhough P.,University of Manitoba | Fernyhough P.,St Boniface Research Center
Cell Calcium

Peripheral sensory nervous system is comprised of neurones with their axons and neuroglia that includes satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia, myelinating, non-myelinating and perisynaptic Schwann cells. Pathogenesis of peripheral diabetic polyneuropathies is associated with aberrant function of both neurones and glia. Deregulated Ca2+ homoeostasis and aberrant Ca2+ signalling in neuronal and glial elements contributes to many forms of neuropathology and is fundamental to neurodegenerative diseases. In diabetes both neurones and glia experience metabolic stress and mitochondrial dysfunction which lead to deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+ signalling, which in their turn lead to pathological cellular reactions contributing to development of diabetic neuropathies. Molecular cascades responsible for Ca2+ homeostasis and signalling, therefore, can be regarded as potential therapeutic targets. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Nicholson T.,St Boniface Research Center | Khademi H.,University of Isfahan | Moghadasian M.H.,St Boniface Research Center
Food and Function

Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have long been studied for their health benefits. In particular, marine n-3 PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to possess cardiovascular protective qualities. However, there is conflicting evidence as to the mechanisms, effectiveness and doses required to observe these benefits. The objective of this review is to provide existing evidence as to the role of marine n-3 PUFA on cardiovascular health, as well as provide novel aspects to the current literature as of September 2012. Three large randomized clinical studies were reviewed to determine if there was an inverse association between n-3 fatty acid intake and CVD. There is strong evidence that the pharmaceutical grade n-3 fatty acid drug Lovaza™, (previously Omacor™) is effective in reducing triglyceride levels in humans. However, there are possible adverse reactions that need to be taken into account and caution should be used in treating certain populations. The Omega-3 Index is a promising novel biomarker for assessing long term EPA + DHA status in humans. Due to the originality of the Index, additional evidence is required to assess this as a tool for predicting CVD. Future research is needed to determine the individual effects of EPA and DHA for cardio-protection. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Snow W.M.,St Boniface Research Center | Snow W.M.,University of Manitoba | Stoesz B.M.,University of Manitoba | Kelly D.M.,University of Manitoba | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Neurobiology

Although traditionally associated with immune function, the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) has garnered much attention in recent years as an important regulator of memory. Specifically, research has found that NF-κB, localized in both neurons and glia, is activated during the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), a paradigm of synaptic plasticity and correlate of memory. Further, experimental manipulation of NF-κB activation or its blockade results in altered memory and spatial navigation abilities. Genetic knockout of specific NF-κB subunits in mice results in memory alterations. Collectively, such data suggest that NF-κB may be a requirement for memory, although the direction of the response (i.e., memory enhancement or deficit) is inconsistent. A limited number of gene targets of NF-κB have been recently identified in neurons, including neurotrophic factors, calcium-regulating proteins, other transcription factors, and molecules associated with neuronal outgrowth and remodeling. In turn, several key molecules are activators of NF-κB, including protein kinase C and [Ca ++]i. Thus, NF-κB signaling is complex and under the regulation of numerous proteins involved in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. The purpose of this review is to highlight the literature detailing a role for NF-κB in synaptic plasticity, memory, and spatial navigation. Secondly, this review will synthesize the research evaluating gene targets of NF-κB in synaptic plasticity and memory. Although there is ample evidence to suggest a critical role for NF-κB in memory, our understanding of its gene targets in neurons is limited and only beginning to be appreciated. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

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