Chochinov H.M.,University of Manitoba |
Chochinov H.M.,Manitoba Palliative Care Research Unit |
Kristjanson L.J.,Swinburne University of Technology |
Kristjanson L.J.,Curtin University Australia |
And 7 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2011
Background: Dignity therapy is a unique, individualised, short-term psychotherapy that was developed for patients (and their families) living with life-threatening or life-limiting illness. We investigated whether dignity therapy could mitigate distress or bolster the experience in patients nearing the end of their lives. Methods: Patients (aged ≥18 years) with a terminal prognosis (life expectancy ≤6 months) who were receiving palliative care in a hospital or community setting (hospice or home) in Canada, USA, and Australia were randomly assigned to dignity therapy, client-centred care, or standard palliative care in a 1:1:1 ratio. Randomisation was by use of a computer-generated table of random numbers in blocks of 30. Allocation concealment was by use of opaque sealed envelopes. The primary outcomes-reductions in various dimensions of distress before and after completion of the study-were measured with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-Being Scale, Patient Dignity Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, items from the Structured Interview for Symptoms and Concerns, Quality of Life Scale, and modified Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale. Secondary outcomes of self-reported end-of-life experiences were assessed in a survey that was undertaken after the completion of the study. Outcomes were assessed by research staff with whom the participant had no previous contact to avoid any possible response bias or contamination. Analyses were done on all patients with available data at baseline and at the end of the study intervention. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00133965. Findings: 165 of 441 patients were assigned to dignity therapy, 140 standard palliative care, and 136 client-centred care. 108, 111, and 107 patients, respectively, were analysed. No significant differences were noted in the distress levels before and after completion of the study in the three groups. For the secondary outcomes, patients reported that dignity therapy was significantly more likely than the other two interventions to have been helpful (χ2=35·50, df=2; p<0·0001), improve quality of life (χ2=14·52; p=0·001), increase sense of dignity (χ2=12·66; p=0·002), change how their family saw and appreciated them (χ2=33·81; p<0·0001), and be helpful to their family (χ2=33·86; p<0·0001). Dignity therapy was significantly better than client-centred care in improving spiritual wellbeing (χ2=10·35; p=0·006), and was significantly better than standard palliative care in terms of lessening sadness or depression (χ2=9·38; p=0·009); significantly more patients who had received dignity therapy reported that the study group had been satisfactory, compared with those who received standard palliative care (χ2=29·58; p<0·0001). Interpretation: Although the ability of dignity therapy to mitigate outright distress, such as depression, desire for death or suicidality, has yet to be proven, its benefits in terms of self-reported end-of-life experiences support its clinical application for patients nearing death. Funding: National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
The utility of cardiac biomarkers, tissue velocity and strain imaging, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in predicting early left ventricular dysfunction in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor iipositive breast cancer treated with adjuvant trastuzumab therapy
Fallah-Rad N.,University of Manitoba |
Walker J.R.,University of Manitoba |
Wassef A.,University of Manitoba |
Lytwyn M.,University of Manitoba |
And 10 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2011
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether cardiac biomarkers, tissue velocity (TVI) and strain imaging, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can predict early left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in human epidermal growth factor receptor IIpositive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting. Background: Early indexes of LV systolic dysfunction with noninvasive cardiac imaging would be useful for addressing the cardiac safety profile of trastuzumab, potentially avoiding the detrimental effects of heart failure. Methods: We used cardiac biomarkers, TVI and strain imaging, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to detect pre-clinical changes in LV systolic function, before conventional changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in human epidermal growth factor receptor IIpositive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting. Results: Of 42 patients (mean age 47 ± 9 years) prospectively followed between 2007 and 2009, 10 (25%) developed trastuzumab-mediated cardiomyopathy (CM). Troponin T, C-reactive protein, and brain natriuretic peptide did not change over time. Within 3 months of adjuvant therapy with trastuzumab, there was a significant difference in the lateral S′ between the normal cohort and the CM group (9.1 ± 1.6 cm/s and 6.4 ± 0.6 cm/s, respectively, p < 0.05). Similarly, the peak global longitudinal and radial strain decreased as early as 3 months in the trastuzumab-mediated cardiotoxicity group. As compared with both global longitudinal and radial strain, only S′ was able to identify all 10 patients who developed trastuzumab-mediated CM. The LVEF subsequently decreased at 6 months of follow-up in all 10 patients, necessitating discontinuation of the drug. All 10 patients demonstrated delayed enhancement of the lateral wall of the LV within the mid-myocardial portion, consistent with trastuzumab-induced CM. Conclusions: Both TVI and strain imaging were able to detect pre-clinical changes in LV systolic function, before conventional changes in LVEF, in patients receiving trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting. © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Leslie W.D.,University of Manitoba |
Leslie W.D.,St Boniface General Hospital |
Schousboe J.T.,University of Minnesota
Current Osteoporosis Reports | Year: 2011
Fracture rates are known to vary by more than an order of magnitude worldwide; therefore, a single approach cannot be universally applied to all countries. National considerations must reflect the burden of osteoporosis, available resources, the disease costs to the individual and society, and how these relate to competing health and other societal priorities. Recent developments in terms of diagnosis, fracture risk prediction, and therapeutic options have prompted many countries to review and update their clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the prevention and management of osteoporosis intended for use in primary care in the general adult population. This paper reviews recently updated CPGs from the following countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.
Leslie W.D.,University of Manitoba |
Leslie W.D.,St Boniface General Hospital |
Morin S.N.,McGill University
Current Opinion in Rheumatology | Year: 2014
Purpose of review: To summarize the recently published studies that provide insights into the changing epidemiology of osteoporosis and fractures. Recent findings: The main themes reviewed are fracture outcomes; trends in fractures rates; fracture risk assessment and monitoring; atypical femoral fractures; male osteoporosis; falls and physical activity; and sarcopenia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Summary: Osteoporotic fractures were found to have long-term consequences on excess mortality (10 years) and economic costs (5 years). The large burden of nonhip nonvertebral fractures has been underestimated. Divergent (but mostly declining) trends in fracture rates were confirmed in several cohorts from around the world. This has significant implications for healthcare planners and clinicians responsible for the care of individuals with osteoporosis, and also impacts on the calibration of fracture prediction tools. Although fracture prediction tools differ in their complexity, performance characteristics are similar when applied to the general population. Large, high-quality comparative studies with different case mixes are needed. Fracture probability does not appear to be responsive enough to support goal-directed treatment at this time. A consensus on the diagnosis of osteoporosis in men has emerged, based upon the same absolute bone density cutoff for both men and women. Finally, a plethora of new data highlight the importance of falls, physical activity, and body composition as contributors to skeletal health. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Capoulade R.,Laval University |
Clavel M.-A.,Laval University |
Dumesnil J.G.,Laval University |
Chan K.L.,University of Ottawa |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2012
Objectives: The aims of this study were to examine prospectively the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and aortic stenosis (AS) progression and to evaluate the effect of age and statin therapy on AS progression in patients with or without MetS. Background: Despite the clear benefits of statin therapy in primary and secondary coronary heart disease prevention, several recent randomized trials have failed to demonstrate any significant effect of this class of drugs on the progression of AS. Previous retrospective studies have reported an association between MetS and faster AS progression. Methods: This predefined substudy included 243 of the 269 patients enrolled in the ASTRONOMER (AS Progression Observation: Measuring Effects of Rosuvastatin) trial. Follow-up was 3.4 ± 1.3 years. AS progression rate was measured by calculating the annualized increase in peak aortic jet velocity measured by Doppler echocardiography. Results: Patients with MetS (27%) had faster stenosis progression (+0.25 ± 0.21 m/s/year vs. +0.19 ± 0.19 m/s/year, p = 0.03). Predictors of faster AS progression in multivariate analysis were older age (p = 0.01), higher degree of valve calcification (p = 0.01), higher peak aortic jet velocity at baseline (p = 0.007), and MetS (p = 0.005). Impact of MetS on AS progression was most significant in younger (< 57 years) patients (MetS: +0.24 ± 0.19 m/s/year vs. no MetS: +0.13 ± 0.18 m/s/year, p = 0.008) and among patients receiving statin therapy (+0.27 ± 0.23 m/s/year vs. +0.19 ± 0.18 m/s/year, p = 0.045). In multivariate analysis, the MetS-age interaction was significant (p = 0.01), but the MetS-statin use interaction was not. Conclusions: MetS was found to be a powerful and independent predictor of faster AS progression, with more pronounced impact in younger patients. These findings emphasize the importance of routinely identifying and treating MetS in AS patients. The apparent faster stenosis progression in the subset of normocholesterolemic patients with MetS receiving the statin will need to be confirmed by future studies. © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Giesbrecht E.M.,University of Manitoba |
Ethans K.D.,University of Manitoba |
Staley D.,St Boniface General Hospital
Spinal Cord | Year: 2011
Study design: This study was a repeated measures study. Objectives: The objective was to systematically measure the relative reduction in interface pressure (IP) at the ischial tuberosities (IT) and sacrum through 10° increments of tilt in a manual wheelchair among individuals with motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: This study was carried out in Manitoba, Canada. Methods: A total of 18 adults with ASIA A or B level of injury were recruited through an out-patient SCI clinic. Using a standardized protocol, participants were tilted in 10° increments between 0° and 50°, and IP readings were obtained at the IT and sacrum using pressure mapping technology. Relative pressure reduction from baseline was calculated and compared between tilt angles. Results: Tilt angle had a highly significant effect on pressure reduction at the IT (P0.000) and the cosine relationship between these variables was expressed as quadratic. Reduction in sacral pressure did not occur until 30° tilt, with increased loading at smaller tilt angles. Pressure reduction at the IT and sacrum was not significantly different for tetraplegic and paraplegic participants. Conclusion: Small tilt angles are more suitable for postural control than pressure management. A minimum tilt of 30° is required to initiate unloading the sacrum and to achieve a clinically important reduction in pressure at the IT. Larger tilt angles resulted in more substantial pressure reduction than previously reported. Tilt-in-space appears to have similar benefits for individuals with paraplegia and tetraplegia. © 2011 International Spinal Cord Society All rights reserved.
Leslie W.D.,University of Manitoba |
Leslie W.D.,St Boniface General Hospital |
Aubry-Rozier B.,University of Lausanne |
Lamy O.,University of Lausanne |
Hans D.,University of Lausanne
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013
Context: Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased fracture risk but paradoxically greater bone mineral density (BMD). Trabecular bone score (TBS) is derived from the texture of the spine dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) image and is related to bone microarchitecture and fracture risk, providing information independent of BMD. Objective: This study evaluated the ability of lumbar spine TBS to account for increased fracture risk in diabetes. Design and Setting: We performed a retrospective cohort study using BMD results from a large clinical registry for the province of Manitoba, Canada. Patients: We included 29,407 women 50 years old and older with baseline DXA examinations, among whom 2356 had diagnosed diabetes. Main Outcome Measures: Lumbar spine TBS was derived for each spine DXA examination blinded to clinical parameters and outcomes. Health service records were assessed for incident nontraumatic major osteoporotic fractures (mean follow-up 4.7 years). Results: Diabetes was associated with higher BMD at all sites but lower lumbar spine TBS in unadjusted and adjusted models (all P<.001). The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for a measurement in the lowest vs the highest tertile was less than 1 for BMD (all P<.001) but was increased for lumbar spine TBS [aOR 2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30-2.97]. Major osteoporotic fractures were identified in 175 women (7.4%) with and 1493 (5.5%) without diabetes (P<.001). Lumbar spine TBS was a BMD-independent predictor of fracture and predicted fractures in those with diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio 1.27, 95% CI 1.10-1.46) and without diabetes (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.24-1.38). The effect of diabetes on fracture was reduced when lumbar spine TBS was added to a prediction model but was paradoxically increased from adding BMD measurements. Conclusions: Lumbar spine TBS predicts osteoporotic fractures in those with diabetes, and captures a larger portion of the diabetes-associated fracture risk than BMD. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.
Ariano R.E.,St Boniface General Hospital
The Annals of pharmacotherapy | Year: 2013
To describe a case of successful treatment of severe pulmonary blastomycosis with amphotericin B deoxycholate after failure of liposomal amphotericin B. A 35-year-old male was exposed to damp decomposing wood while cleaning his basement. He subsequently developed a cough, malaise, fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He was admitted to the hospital and intubated for worsening pulmonary symptoms. Microscopic examination of his sputum indicated Blastomyces dermatitidis. Liposomal amphotericin B was administered for 6 days, but the patient's temperature reached 39.6 °C and his white blood cell (WBC) count reached 52,300/μL. Extensive consolidation of both lungs fields was observed on chest X-ray. Because of progressive clinical deterioration, the treatment was switched to amphotericin B deoxycholate by continuous infusion. That change resulted in clinical improvement, with abrupt reductions (within 48 hours) in temperature and the WBC count. By day 14 of therapy (day 8 of amphotericin B deoxycholate), the chest X-ray showed improvement in diffuse airspace filling. After 16 days of amphotericin B treatment, intravenous followed by oral voriconazole was administered for 3 months. Eight months later the patient's strength had improved significantly, but he still had occasional episodes of shortness of breath. The management of blastomycosis is challenging because of the lack of clinically supporting data. The gold standard for severe pulmonary blastomycosis had been amphotericin B deoxycholate; however, improved safety data with liposomal amphotericin B for other fungal infections has suggested this as an effective alternative. This report describes a patient with severe pulmonary blastomycosis failing 6 days of liposomal amphotericin B, yet he tolerated and clinically responded to continuous infusion of amphotericin B deoxycholate. Based on this case report and a simulated pharmacokinetic/pharmaco dynamic analysis, continuous infusion of amphotericin B deoxycholate may be a reasonable option for enhanced efficacy and minimal toxicity in patients with blastomycosis. Ours is the first case report to use continuous infusion of amphotericin B deoxycholate for the management of pulmonary blastomycosis. These results suggest that liposomal amphotericin B may not be adequate in some patients for the management of B. dermatitidis pulmonary infections.
Jawanda G.G.,St Boniface General Hospital |
Drachenberg D.,St Boniface General Hospital
Journal of the Canadian Urological Association | Year: 2012
Spontaneous regression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a wellrecognized and interesting phenomenon that is poorly understood and rarely documented. There are very few reported cases of spontaneously regressed primary RCC. We present a 63-year-old male with a biopsy-proven RCC that regressed with complete resolution of symptoms. © 2012 Canadian Urological Association.
Shojania A.M.,St Boniface General Hospital |
Von Kuster K.,St Boniface General Hospital
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2010
Background. Since 1998, in the countries where there is mandatory fortification of grain products with folic acid, folate deficiency has become very rare. Consequently, we decided to find out whether there is any justification for ordering folate assays for investigation of anemias. Methods. We reviewed serum folate (SF) and red cell folate (RF) data at two teaching hospitals in Canada. At the Health Sciences Centre (HSC) the folate data for the year 2001 were analyzed and the medical records of those with low SF or low RF were reviewed. At St. Boniface General Hospital(SBGH)all folate data between January 1996 and Dec 31,2004 were analyzed and the medical records of all who had low RF between January 1,1999 and December 31,2004 were reviewed. Results. In 2001, at HSC, 11 out of 2154(0.5%)SF were low(<7.0 nmol/L) and 4 out of 560 (0.7%) RF were low (<417 nmol/L). In no subject with low SF or RF could the anemia be attributed to folate deficiency. At SBGH during the 3-year-period of 1999-2001, 19 out of 991(1.9%) had low RF (<225 nmol/L) but in only 2 patients (0.2%) the low RF was in folate deficiency anemia range; but neither of them had anemia. Conclusion. In countries where there is mandatory fortification of grain products with folic acid, folate deficiency to the degree that could cause anemia is extremely rare. Ordering folate assays for investigation of anemias, in these countries, is waste of time and money. The result of these tests is more likely to mislead the physicians than to provide any useful information. © 2010 Shojania et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.