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St. Boniface, Canada

Li P.K.T.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Culleton B.F.,Baxter Healthcare Corporation | Ariza A.,RTS Ltda Cartagena | Do J.-Y.,Yeungnam University | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2013

Glucose-containing peritoneal dialysis solutions may exacerbate metabolic abnormalities and increase cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. Here, we examined whether a low-glucose regimen improves metabolic control in diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to the control group (dextrose solutions only) or to the low-glucose intervention group (IMPENDIA trial: combination of dextrose-based solution, icodextrin and amino acids; EDEN trial: a different dextrose-based solution, icodextrin andamino acids) and followed for 6 months. Combiningboth studies, 251 patients were allocated to control (n=127) or intervention (n=124) across 11 countries. The primary endpoint was change in glycated hemoglobin from baseline. Mean glycated hemoglobin at baseline was similar in both groups. In the intention-to-treat population, the mean glycated hemoglobin profile improved in the intervention group but remained unchanged in the control group (0.5% difference between groups; 95% confidence interval, 0.1% to 0.8%; P=0.006). Serum triglyceride, very-low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B levels also improved in the intervention group. Deaths and serious adverse events, including several related to extracellular fluid volume expansion, increased in the intervention group, however. These data suggest that a low-glucose dialysis regimen improves metabolic indices in diabetic patients receiving peritoneal dialysis but may be associated with an increased risk of extracellular fluid volume expansion. Thus, use of glucose-sparing regimens in peritoneal dialysis patients should be accompanied by close monitoring of fluid volume status. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Nephrology.

To describe a case of successful treatment of severe pulmonary blastomycosis with amphotericin B deoxycholate after failure of liposomal amphotericin B. A 35-year-old male was exposed to damp decomposing wood while cleaning his basement. He subsequently developed a cough, malaise, fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He was admitted to the hospital and intubated for worsening pulmonary symptoms. Microscopic examination of his sputum indicated Blastomyces dermatitidis. Liposomal amphotericin B was administered for 6 days, but the patient's temperature reached 39.6 °C and his white blood cell (WBC) count reached 52,300/μL. Extensive consolidation of both lungs fields was observed on chest X-ray. Because of progressive clinical deterioration, the treatment was switched to amphotericin B deoxycholate by continuous infusion. That change resulted in clinical improvement, with abrupt reductions (within 48 hours) in temperature and the WBC count. By day 14 of therapy (day 8 of amphotericin B deoxycholate), the chest X-ray showed improvement in diffuse airspace filling. After 16 days of amphotericin B treatment, intravenous followed by oral voriconazole was administered for 3 months. Eight months later the patient's strength had improved significantly, but he still had occasional episodes of shortness of breath. The management of blastomycosis is challenging because of the lack of clinically supporting data. The gold standard for severe pulmonary blastomycosis had been amphotericin B deoxycholate; however, improved safety data with liposomal amphotericin B for other fungal infections has suggested this as an effective alternative. This report describes a patient with severe pulmonary blastomycosis failing 6 days of liposomal amphotericin B, yet he tolerated and clinically responded to continuous infusion of amphotericin B deoxycholate. Based on this case report and a simulated pharmacokinetic/pharmaco dynamic analysis, continuous infusion of amphotericin B deoxycholate may be a reasonable option for enhanced efficacy and minimal toxicity in patients with blastomycosis. Ours is the first case report to use continuous infusion of amphotericin B deoxycholate for the management of pulmonary blastomycosis. These results suggest that liposomal amphotericin B may not be adequate in some patients for the management of B. dermatitidis pulmonary infections.

Maitland A.,Foothills Medical Center | Hirsch G.M.,Health Science Center | Pascoe E.A.,St. Boniface General Hospital
Journal of Heart Valve Disease | Year: 2011

Background and aim of the study: The study aim was to evaluate the hemodynamic performance of the St. Jude Medical Epic™ Supra bioprosthesis during the early six-month follow up period, and to confirm the safety and efficacy of the valve by collecting details of adverse events and NYHA functional classification. Methods: Fifty-seven patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) with the Epic Supra valve between September 2007 and January 2009 at three centers in Canada were evaluated for the study. The subjects were monitored preoperatively, at discharge, and at six months postoperatively. Echocardiographic data were available from 50 subjects at the six-month follow up. In order to prevent observer variability, all echocardiograms were sent to an independent Echocardiography Core Laboratory (ECL) for interpretation of the data. Results: The mean subject age was 74 years. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was performed in 44% of the procedures. The mean pressure gradients were 11.2, 12.5, 10.8, 8.4 and 11.3 mmHg, respectively, for valves sized 19 mm (n = 2), 21 mm (n = 20), 23 mm (n = 22), 25 mm (n = 5) and 27 mm (n = 1). The average effective orifice areas (EOAs) were 1.44, 1.57, 1.69, 1.93 and 1.81 cm2 for the valves sized 19, 21, 23, 25 and 27 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the six-month echocardiographic follow up indicated that the Epic Supra valve offered excellent hemodynamic performance in the 21, 23 and 25 mm sizes. However, additional data are still required for the 19 and 27 mm valves to characterize their performance. The mean gradients and EOA-values were comparable to those of other supra-annular stented tissue valves. The EOA index indicated an absence of prosthesis-patient mismatch, with values in all subjects at or near 0.85 cm2/m2. The percentage of subjects without aortic insufficiency (AI) at follow up was 92%; only four subjects showed trivial AI. © Copyright by ICR Publishers 2011.

Alfa M.J.,University of Manitoba | Manickam K.,University of Manitoba | Sepehri S.,University of Manitoba | Sitter D.,St. Boniface General Hospital | Lenton P.,Diagnostic Services of Manitoba
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

The reliability of the BacT/Alert 3D unit for automated detection of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) that grow optimally at 30°C was assessed. This system reliably maintained a temperature of 30°C and detected 50% of the clinical NTM strains (5 Mycobacterium marinum and 3 Mycobacterium gordonae strains) faster than 37°C culture. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Capoulade R.,Laval University | Clavel M.-A.,Laval University | Dumesnil J.G.,Laval University | Chan K.L.,University of Ottawa | And 6 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES The objective of this substudy of the ASTRONOMER (Aortic Stenosis Progression Observation: Measuring Effects of Rosuvastatin) trial was to examine the association between insulin resistance and progression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). BACKGROUND In a recent cross-sectional study, the authors reported that the metabolic syndrome was associated with an increased prevalence of concentric LVH in patients with AS. As a central feature of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance could be an important mediator of this association. METHODS This substudy included 250 of 269 patients enrolled in ASTRONOMER. Follow-up was 3.4 ± 1.3 years. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostatic assessment model (HOMA) index, and patients were dichotomized using the median HOMA index value (1.24). The rate of LVH progression was estimated by calculating the annualized change in LV mass index (LVMi), measured on echocardiography. The presence of LVH was defined as an LVMi >47 g/m2.7 in women and >49 g/m2.7 in men. RESULTS There was a significant progression of LVH among the patients without LVH at baseline (n = 134; p < 0.0001) but not in those with it (n = 116; p = NS). In those without LVH at baseline, the annualized progression rate of LVMi was significantly faster in the subset with HOMA >1.24 compared to that in the subset with HOMA <1.24 (2.49 ± 4.38 g/m2.7/year vs. -0.03 ± 3.90 g/m 2.7/year; p = 0.001). During follow-up, LVH developed in 46% of patients with HOMA <1.24 compared to 11% of those with HOMA <1.24 (p = 0.0005). Independent predictors of faster LVH progression identified on multivariate analysis were history of hypertension (p = 0.048), degree of aortic valve calcification (p = 0.035), and HOMA index (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS In this ASTRONOMER substudy, insulin resistance was a powerful independent predictor of progression to LVH in patients with AS. Visceral obesity and ensuing insulin resistance may thus present novel therapeutic targets in AS patients. © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

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