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Lorenzano S.,Policlinico Umberto i Hospital | Ahmed N.,Karolinska University Hospital | Falcou A.,Policlinico Umberto i Hospital | Mikulik R.,St Annes Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - Women are more likely to have a worse outcome after an acute stroke than men. Some studies have suggested that women also benefit less from intravenous thrombolysis after an acute ischemic stroke, but others found no sex differences in safety and efficacy. We aimed to evaluate differences in 3-month outcome between sexes in intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator-treated patients registered in the Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register. METHODS - A total of 45 079 patients treated with intravenous alteplase were recorded from 2002 to 2011. Main outcome measures were symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2), and mortality at 3 months. RESULTS - Among 25 777 (57.2%) men and 19 302 (42.8%) women, we found no difference in the rate of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (P=0.13), a significantly higher likelihood of functional independence at 3 months in men (P<0.0001) and a higher mortality in women when compared with men (P<0.00001). After adjustment for confounding variables, we did not observe any difference between sexes in functional outcome (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.09; P=0.39), whereas male sex was related to a higher risk of mortality (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.29; P=0.00003) and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 1.25, 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.51; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS - Data from Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register suggest that intravenous thrombolysis may modify the observed survival and recovery advantage for men expected in the natural course of an ischemic stroke, with a possible larger beneficial treatment effect in women when compared with men. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.


Mazya M.,Karolinska University Hospital | Mazya M.,Karolinska Institutet | Egido J.A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Ford G.A.,Newcastle University | And 7 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2012

Background and Purpose-: Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is a serious complication in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis. We aimed to develop a clinical score that can easily be applied to predict the risk of SICH. Methods-: We analyzed data from 31 627 patients treated with intravenous alteplase enrolled in the Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke (SITS) International Stroke Thrombolysis Register. The outcome measure was SICH per the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST) definition: a Type 2 parenchymal hemorrhage with deterioration in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥4 points or death. Univariate risk factors associated with the outcome were entered into a logistic regression model after stratification of continuous variables. Adjusted ORs for the independent risk factors were converted into points, which were summated to produce a risk score. Results-: We identified 9 independent risk factors for SICH: baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, serum glucose, systolic blood pressure, age, body weight, stroke onset to treatment time, aspirin or combined aspirin and clopidogrel, and history of hypertension. The overall rate of SICH was 1.8%. The risk score ranged from 0 to 12 points and showed a >70-fold graded increase in the rate of SICH for patients with a score ≥10 points (14.3%) compared with a score of 0 point (0.2%). The prognostic discriminating capability by C statistic was 0.70. Conclusions-: The SITS SICH risk score predicts large cerebral parenchymal hemorrhages associated with severe clinical deterioration. The score could aid clinicians to identify patients at high as well as low risk of SICH after intravenous alteplase. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.


Ahmed N.,Karolinska University Hospital | Wahlgren N.,Karolinska University Hospital | Grond M.,Kreiskrankenhaus Siegen | Hennerici M.,University of Heidelberg | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2010

Background: In September, 2008, the European Acute Stroke Study III (ECASS III) randomised trial and the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Registry (SITS-ISTR) observational study reported the efficacy and safety of the extension of the time window for intravenous alteplase treatment from within 3 h to within 4·5 h after stroke onset. We aimed to assess the implementation of the wider time window, its effect on the admission-to-treatment time, and safety and functional outcome in patients recorded in SITS-ISTR. Methods: Patients treated according to the criteria of the European Summary of Product Characteristics, except for the time window, were included. Patients were grouped according to whether they were registered into SITS-ISTR before or after October, 2008. We measured admission-to-treatment time and rates of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage, mortality, and functional independence at 3 months. Findings: 23 942 patients were included in SITS-ISTR between December, 2002, and February, 2010, of whom 2376 were treated 3-4·5 h after symptom onset. The proportion of patients treated within 3-4·5 h by the end of 2009 was three times higher than in the first three quarters of 2008 (282 of 1293 [22%] vs 67 of 1023 [7%]). The median admission-to-treatment time was 65 min both for patients registered before and after October, 2008 (p=0·94). 352 (2%) of 21 204 patients treated within 3 h and 52 (2%) of 2317 treated within 3-4·5 h of stroke had symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage at 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·44, 95% CI 1·05-1·97; p=0·02). 2287 (12%) of 18 583 patients who were treated within 3 h and 218 (12%) of 1817 who were treated within 3-4·5 h had died by the 3-month follow-up (adjusted OR 1·26, 95% CI 1·07-1·49; p=0·005); 10 531 (57%) of 18 317 patients treated within 3 h of stroke and 1075 (60%) of 1784 who were treated within 3-4·5 h were functionally independent at 3 months (adjusted OR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75-0·95; p=0·005). Interpretation: Since October, 2008, thrombolysis within 3-4·5 h after stroke has been implemented rapidly, with a simultaneous increase in the number of patients treated within 3 h; admission-to-treatment time has not increased. Safety and functional outcomes are less favourable after 3 h, but the wider time window now offers an opportunity for treatment of those patients who cannot be treated earlier. Thrombolysis should be initiated within 4·5 h after onset of ischaemic stroke, although every effort should be made to treat patients as early as possible after symptom onset. Funding: Boehringer Ingelheim, Ferrer, the European Union Public Health Executive Authority, and Medical Training and Research (ALF) from Stockholm County Council and Karolinska Institutet. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Kadlecova P.,St Annes Hospital | Andel R.,St Annes Hospital | Andel R.,University of South Florida | Mikulik R.,St Annes Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2015

Background and Purpose-Although alcohol-stroke association is well known, the age-varying effect of alcohol drinking at midlife on subsequent stroke risk across older adulthood has not been examined. The effect of genetic/early-life factors is also unknown. We used cohort and twin analyses of data with 43 years of follow-up for stroke incidence to help address these gaps. Methods-All 11 644 members of the population-based Swedish Twin Registry born 1886 to 1925 with alcohol data aged ≤60 years were included. The interaction of midlife alcohol consumption by age at stroke was evaluated in Coxregression and analyses of monozygotic twins were used. Covariates were baseline age, sex, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, stress reactivity, depression, body mass index, smoking, and exercise. Results-Altogether 29% participants developed stroke. Compared with very-light drinkers (<0.5 drink/d), heavy drinkers (≤2 drinks/d) had greater risk of stroke (hazard ratio, 1.34; P=0.02) and the effect for nondrinkers approached significance (hazard ratio, 1.11; P=0.08). Age increased stroke risk for nondrinkers (P=0.012) and decreased it for heavy drinkers (P=0.040). Midlife heavy drinkers were at high risk from baseline until the age of 75 years when hypertension and diabetes mellitus grew to being the more relevant risk factors. In analyses of monozygotic twin-pairs, heavy drinking shortened time to stroke by 5 years (P=0.04). Conclusions-Stroke-risk associated with heavy drinking (>2 drinks/d) in midlife seems to predominate over well-known risk factors, hypertension and diabetes, until the age of ≈75 years and may shorten time to stroke by 5 years above and beyond covariates and genetic/early-life factors. Alcohol consumption should be considered an age-varying risk factor for stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.


Klein P.,Mid Atlantic Epilepsy and Sleep Center | Tyrlikova I.,Mid Atlantic Epilepsy and Sleep Center | Tyrlikova I.,St Annes Hospital | Brazdil M.,Masaryk University | Rektor I.,Masaryk University
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2016

Introduction: Approximately one third of patients with epilepsy fail to respond to existing medications. Levetiracetam is an effective antiepileptic drug (AED) postulated to act by binding to synaptic vesicle protein 2A. Brivaracetam is a novel high affinity SV2A ligand with approximately 20-fold higher affinity for SV2A protein than levetiracetam. It is at an advanced stage of clinical development for treatment of epilepsy.Areas covered: This article reviews animal data, pharmacokinetics, and phase 1-3 data of Brivaracetam treatment of epilepsy. Brivaracetam has broad-spectrum anticonvulsant activity in animal models.Expert Opinion: Phase 1 studies indicated that single oral doses of 5-800 mg and repeated oral doses of up to 600 mg were well tolerated and showed favorable pharmacokinetic profile. Phase 2 studies indicated good safety and tolerability of brivaracetam in the dose range of 5-150 mg/day and provided proof of concept for efficacy in treating refractory partial onset seizures. Efficacy and safety have been evaluated in 4 phase 3 studies with dose range of 5-200 mg which have demonstrated efficacy in the range of 100-200 mg/day dose and, in most studies, also with 50 mg/day dose, and good safety and tolerability profile across 5-200 mg doses in adjunctive treatment of refractory partial onset seizures. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.


Mazya M.V.,Karolinska University Hospital | Mazya M.V.,Karolinska Institutet | Ahmed N.,Karolinska University Hospital | Ahmed N.,Karolinska Institutet | And 6 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2014

Background and Purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage after treatment with intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for ischemic stroke can occur in local relation to the infarct, as well as in brain areas remote from infarcted tissue. We aimed to describe risk factors, 3-month mortality, and functional outcome in patients with the poorly understood complication of remote intracerebral hemorrhage, as well as local intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS-: In this study, 43 494 patients treated with intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, with complete imaging data, were enrolled in the Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register (SITS-ISTR) during 2002 to 2011. Baseline data were compared among 970 patients (2.2%) with remote parenchymal hemorrhage (PHr), 2325 (5.3%) with PH, 438 (1.0%) with both PH and PHr, and 39 761 (91.4%) without PH or PHr. Independent risk factors for all hemorrhage types were obtained by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS-: Previous stroke (P=0.023) and higher age (P<0.001) were independently associated with PHr, but not with PH. Atrial fibrillation, computed tomographic hyperdense cerebral artery sign, and elevated blood glucose were associated with PH, but not with PHr. Female sex had a stronger association with PHr than with PH. Functional independence at 3 months was more common in PHr than in PH (34% versus 24%; P<0.001), whereas 3-month mortality was lower (34% versus 39%; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS-: Differences between risk factor profiles indicate an influence of previous vascular pathology in PHr and acute large-vessel occlusion in PH. Additional research is needed on the effect of pre-existing cerebrovascular disease on complications of recanalization therapy in acute ischemic stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.


Pilotte A.P.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Hohos M.B.,St Annes Hospital | Polson K.M.O.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Huftalen T.M.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Treister N.,Brigham and Women's Hospital
Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing | Year: 2011

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are a class of targeted cancer therapeutic agents with clinical benefit for multiple tumor types. Oral ulcerations are a common side effect of mTOR inhibitors; however, the clinical findings resemble aphthous stomatitis rather than the mucositis seen with chemotherapy. Consequently, the appearance of aphthous-like oral ulcerations has been referred to as mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis (mIAS). The severity of mIAS can be minimized by following common preventive steps and initiating treatment at the first sign of mouth discomfort, thereby reducing the likelihood of treatment discontinuation. mIAS can be managed through prophylactic measures, such as patient education in oral hygiene and avoidance of triggers. Patients who develop mIAS may be treated topically using rinses or other local therapies, including corticosteroids. In severe cases, dose modifications may be required. Oncology nurses have an important role in the management of patients with cancer and are well positioned to offer strategies for minimizing the occurrence and impact of mIAS. © 2011 Oncology Nursing Society.


Lorenzano S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Ahmed N.,Karolinska University Hospital | Tatlisumak T.,University of Helsinki | Gomis M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 6 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2014

Background and Purpose-Temporal variations of thrombolysis delivery and their influence on outcome have been reported with controversial results. In this large cohort study, we evaluated whether thrombolytic treatment has a within-day and weekly variability corresponding to circadian and weekly patterns of ischemic stroke onset, and whether these have impact on clinical outcome. Methods-We retrospectively analyzed patients with acute ischemic stroke receiving intravenous alteplase, prospectively included in the Safe Implementation of Treatments in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register. Patients were grouped by treatment on day hours (08:00-19:59) or night hours (20:00-07:59) and treatment on weekdays and weekends. For each subgroup, we analyzed frequency of thrombolytic treatments, time intervals, and outcomes (3-month modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 as good functional outcome, mortality, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage). Results-We included 21 513 patients. Considering the mean expected number of patients treated per hour (0.4) and per day of the week (9.8), if no temporal variations were present, patients were significantly treated more during day hours and weekdays (P<0.0001). Median door-to-needle and onset-to-treatment times were longer for patients treated during night hours and on weekends (P<0.01). After adjustment for confounding variables, treatment during day hours was an independent predictor of good functional outcome (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.21; P=0.004), and patients treated during weekdays were at risk of higher mortality (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.28; P=0.008). Conclusions-Frequency of thrombolytic treatment seems to follow the same circadian pattern of stroke incidence, whereas its correspondence to a weekly pattern is less clear. Time of treatment is an independent predictor of outcome. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.


Bower M.R.,Mayo Systems Electrophysiology Laboratory | Stead M.,Mayo Systems Electrophysiology Laboratory | Bower R.S.,Mayo Systems Electrophysiology Laboratory | Kucewicz M.T.,Mayo Systems Electrophysiology Laboratory | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

The establishment of memories involves reactivation of waking neuronal activity patterns and strengthening of associated neural circuits during slow-wave sleep (SWS), a process known as “cellular consolidation” (Dudai and Morris, 2013). Reactivation of neural activity patterns during waking behaviors that occurs on a timescale of seconds to minutes is thought to constitute memory recall (O’Keefe and Nadel, 1978), whereas consolidation of memory traces may be revealed and served by correlated firing (reactivation) that appears during sleep under conditions suitable for synaptic modification (Buhry et al., 2011). Although reactivation has been observed in human neuronal recordings (Gelbard-Sagiv et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2013), reactivation during sleep has not, likely because data are difficult to obtain and the effect is subtle. Seizures, however, provide intense and synchronous, yet sparse activation (Bower et al., 2012) that could produce a stronger consolidation effect if seizures activate learning-related mechanisms similar to those activated by learned tasks. Continuous wide-bandwidth recordings from patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for drug-resistant epilepsy revealed reactivation of seizure-related neuronal activity during subsequent SWS, but not wakefulness. Those neuronal assemblies that were most strongly activated during seizures showed the largest correlation changes, suggesting that consolidation selectively strengthened neuronal circuits activated by seizures. These results suggest that seizures “hijack” physiological learning mechanisms and also suggest a novel epilepsy therapy targeting neuronal dynamics during post-seizure sleep. © 2015 the authors.


Konecny T.,Mayo Medical School | Konecny T.,St Annes Hospital | Somers V.K.,Mayo Medical School
Chest | Year: 2014

Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) may be a treatable risk factor in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common inherited cardiomyopathy. Evidence suggests a high prevalence of SDB in HCM. We summarize the pathophysiology of SDB as it relates to hypertension, coronary artery disease, atrial fi brillation, and sudden cardiac death in patients with HCM. The implications regarding the care of patients with HCM and SDB are discussed as well as the knowledge defi cits needing further exploration. © 2014 AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CHEST PHYSICIANS.

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