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Carpi A.,University of Pisa | Rossi G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Coscio G.D.,University of Pisa | Iervasi G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Medicine | Year: 2010

Background. New techniques of improving diagnostic reliability of thyroid nodules are needed. Aim and methods. This prospective cohort study includes patients with one (201) or multiple (22) palpable nodule(s). Preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), large-needle aspiration biopsy (LNAB), and galectin-3 detection on LNAB (GAL-3-LNAB) (total of 245 nodules) were compared when the FNAB finding was 'inadequate' or 'indeterminate'. The sizes of the needles used for FNAB and LNAB were compared with the size of thyroid follicles. Forty nodules were surgically excised according to current recommendation. Results. GAL-3-LNAB was inadequate in 4% of nodules, compared with 34% using FNAB and 11% using LNAB (P < 0.0001). GAL-3-LNAB showed no indeterminate findings, compared with 15% using FNAB and 13% using LNAB (P < 0.0001). Among the 40 excised nodules, GAL-3-LNAB showed the highest accuracy values. The sensitivity (P 0.011) and specificity (P < 0.000; P 0.001) ranges were 40%100% and 20%40% for FNAB, 40%100% and 50%53.7% for LNAB, and 100% and 76.7%80% for GAL-3-LNAB, respectively. The largest needles used for LNAB, 20 or 18 gauge, with an internal diameter of 0.6 or 0.91 mm, recorded the lowest rate of inadequate or indeterminate FNAB findings. Conclusions. GAL-3-LNAB reduced inadequate, abolished indeterminate findings, and provided specificity values higher than FNAB or LNAB in palpable thyroid nodules. © Informa UK Ltd.

Pennazza G.,Biomedical University of Rome | Santonico M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Martinelli E.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Paolesse R.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 6 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2011

The analysis of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by bio-systems represents a promising approach for the diagnosis of human diseases including cancers. Experimental results suggested the possibility to detect tumors in vivo through the analysis of released VOCs from different body compartments, such as breath and skin. This paper illustrates the results obtained measuring VOCs mixtures released by well-characterized tumor cells derived from human malignancies by using an array of broadly selective chemical sensors. The patterns of VOCs emitted by two different melanoma tumorigenic cell lines transplanted ad hoc in a mice model were investigated. The recorded sensors signals are compatible with the existence of a distinguishable tumor specific pattern of VOCs evolving during the exponential phase of tumor growth. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kelleher F.C.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Kelleher F.C.,IE University | O'Sullivan H.,IE University | Smyth E.,The Royal Marsden Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2013

Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) are a family of ligands that bind to four different types of cell surface receptor entitled, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. These receptors differ in their ligand binding affinity and tissue distribution. The prototypical receptor structure is that of an extracellular region comprising three immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, a hydrophobic transmembrane segment and a split intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Alternative gene splicing affecting the extracellular third Ig loop also creates different receptor isoforms entitled FGFRIIIb and FGFRIIIc. Somatic fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) mutations are implicated in different types of cancer and germline FGFR mutations occur in developmental syndromes particularly those in which craniosynostosis is a feature. The mutations found in both conditions are often identical. Many somatic FGFR mutations in cancer are gain-of-function mutations of established preclinical oncogenic potential. Gene amplification can also occur with 19-22% of squamous cell lung cancers for example having amplification of FGFR1. Ontologic comparators can be informative such as aberrant spermatogenesis being implicated in both spermatocytic seminomas and Apert syndrome. The former arises from somatic FGFR3 mutations and Apert syndrome arises from germline FGFR2 mutations. Finally, therapeutics directed at inhibiting the FGF/FGFR interaction are a promising subject for clinical trials. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

Bartolazzi A.,St Andrea University Hospital | Santonico M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Pennazza G.,Biomedical University of Rome | Martinelli E.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | And 3 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2010

In recent years a body of evidences about the relationship between volatile compounds released in body compartments and diseases have been provided. These researches did not indicate if anomalous volatile patterns are a consequence of a general alteration of body metabolism or if they originate from cancer cells. In order to approach a solution to this question, in this paper, an experiment aimed at discriminating cultured tumoral cells lines from their volatile compounds is illustrated. Volatile organic compounds have been fingerprinted with a gas sensor array and a gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometer. These results suggest that cell lines from human tumors are characterized by a distinct volatile compounds profile and that these patterns when fingerprinted by a chemical sensor array tend to cluster according to the kind of tumor. These findings provide a hint about the possibility to identify a specific volatile fingerprint for each tumor type. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kelleher F.C.,Peter Mac Callum Cancer Center | Kelleher F.C.,St Vincents University Hospital | Viterbo A.,St Vincents University Hospital | Viterbo A.,St Andrea University Hospital
Cancers | Year: 2013

Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is an inclusive term used for sarcomas that defy formal sub-classification. The frequency with which this diagnosis is assigned has decreased in the last twenty years. This is because when implemented, careful histologic assessment, immunohistochemistry, and ultra-structural evaluation can often determine lineage of differentiation. Further attrition in the diagnostic frequency of UPS may arise by using array-comparative genomic hybridization. Gene expression arrays are also of potential use as they permit hierarchical gene clustering. Appraisal of the literature is difficult due to a historical perspective in which specific molecular diagnostic methods were previously unavailable. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification has changed with different inclusion criteria. Taxonomy challenges also exist with the older term "malignant fibrous histiocytoma" being replaced by "UPS". In 2010 an analysis of multiple sarcoma expression databases using a 170-gene predictor, re-classified most MFH and "not-otherwise-specified" (NOS) tumors as liposarcomas, leiomyosarcomas or fibrosarcomas. Interestingly, some of the classifier genes are potential molecular therapeutic targets including Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), Peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor γ (PPARγ), Nerve growth factor β (NGF β) and Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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