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Evans E.H.,University of Plymouth | Pisonero J.,University of Oviedo | Smith C.M.M.,St. Ambrose High School | Taylor R.N.,University of Southampton
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2014

This review covers developments in 'Atomic Spectrometry'. It covers atomic emission, absorption, fluorescence and mass spectrometry, but excludes material on speciation and coupled techniques which is included in a separate review. It should be read in conjunction with the other related reviews in the series. 1-6 A critical approach to the selection of material has been adopted, with only novel developments in instrumentation, techniques and methodology being included. A number of themes have emerged from this year's review. Novel developments in sample preparation include the use of magnetic nanoparticles for solid phase extraction and an increase in the number of viable methods for use in quantitation of peptides, proteins and DNA by elemental tagging, particularly the development of multiplexed techniques. There were also some advances in electrochemical vapour generation, such as the use of reducing reagents immobilized on electrodes and development of electrolytic membrane diffusion cells. New instrumentation has been to the fore, with research into some novel and interesting miniaturized plasma sources being of particular interest, plus the development of a new distance of flight (DOF) mass spectrometer. There have been some insightful fundamental studies of particle atomization and ionization in ICP-MS, and subsequent space-charge effects after ion sampling, which should enable practical steps to solving some of these problems. One of the main drivers of research in isotope ratio analysis has been to increase detection power to enable smaller and smaller quantities of analyte to be measured, which yields advantages in geochronology and nuclear forensics. Laser ablation has played a large part in many types of analysis where high resolution is required, including analysis of single particles, small inclusions or elemental mapping of tissues, so the development of LA methods with extremely small spot sizes and efficient sample transport to the source has been key. In addition, several novel methods have been developed, such as laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry (LAMIS) for isotope ratio analysis, and stand-off LIBS techniques such as 'underwater LIBS'. In contrast, very little research into the use of chemometrics has been reported, and fundamental studies are generally confined to characterization of new plasma sources. © 2014 The Partner Organisations. Source


Evans E.H.,University of Plymouth | Pisonero J.,University of Oviedo | Smith C.M.M.,St. Ambrose High School | Taylor R.N.,University of Southampton
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2016

This review of 151 references covers developments in 'Atomic Spectrometry' published in the twelve months from November 2014 to November 2015 inclusive. It covers atomic emission, absorption, fluorescence and mass spectrometry, but excludes material on speciation and coupled techniques which are included in a separate review. It should be read in conjunction with the previous review1 and the other related reviews in the series.2-6 A critical approach to the selection of material has been adopted, with only novel developments in instrumentation, techniques and methodology being included. Most of the techniques discussed have reached a stage of maturity where major advances are less common, with many of the novel developments falling under the category of 'applications' and advances in instrumentation being confined to component parts, such as sample introduction and sample preparation systems. There have been some developments in mass spectrometry, with reports of distance of flight (DOF)-MS and zoom-TOF-MS to improve speed of data collection and resolution respectively; and further insights into space charge effects in the ICP channel and ion beam of ICP-MS. The development of components for portable systems continues to be of interest, covering areas such as plasma sources for OES, fibre-optic laser systems for LIBS, and compact components for planetary exploration. The quest for high sensitivity and precision and low noise has driven developments in MC-ICP-MS in order to improve precision of IR measurements for geochronology and other applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. Source


Evans E.H.,University of Plymouth | Day J.A.,University of Cambridge | Palmer C.,New York State Department of Health | Smith. C.M.M.,St. Ambrose High School
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2010

This is the second iteration of this review covering developments in 'Atomic Spectrometry'. It covers atomic emission, absorption, fluorescence and mass spectrometry, but excludes material on speciation and coupled techniques which is included in a separate review.1 It should be read in conjunction with the other related reviews in the series.2-5 A critical approach to the selection of material has been adopted, with only novel developments in instrumentation, techniques and methodology being included. Most techniques have reached a level of maturity which precludes the emergence of 'stand-out' new developments. It is noteworthy that there are very few novel publications in sections on chemometrics, fundamental studies, or direct solids analysis. Sample introduction continues to generate a steady stream of research outputs, but these are mainly derivative and focused on applications. The advent of SF-ICP-MS is becoming widely adopted as a reliable technique for IR measurements, so this had been the main growth area. Likewise, the use of femtosecond UV lasers has now entered the mainstream for geological applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010. Source


Evans E.H.,University of Plymouth | Horstwood M.,British Geological Survey | Pisonero J.,University of Oviedo | Smith C.M.M.,St. Ambrose High School
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2013

This review covers developments in 'Atomic Spectrometry'. It covers atomic emission, absorption, fluorescence and mass spectrometry, but excludes material on speciation and coupled techniques which is included in a separate review. It should be read in conjunction with the other related reviews in the series. 1-6 A critical approach to the selection of material has been adopted, with only novel developments in instrumentation, techniques and methodology being included. Developments worthy of note include photochemical and electrochemical methods of vapour generation, single particle analysis using ICP-MS and the development of new methods for direct plasma generation in liquid samples. The use of MC-ICP-MS continues to grow in importance for isotope ratio measurements in fields as diverse as geochronology, nuclear forensics and biomedical research. Laser-based methods are also important in many fields, particularly for direct and stand-off analysis of solid samples. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Hywel Evans E.,University of Plymouth | Palmer C.D.,New York State Department of Health | Smith C.M.M.,St. Ambrose High School
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2012

This is the second iteration of this review covering developments in 'Atomic Spectrometry'. It covers atomic emission, absorption, fluorescence and mass spectrometry, but excludes material on speciation and coupled techniques which is included in a separate review. It should be read in conjunction with the other related reviews in the series. 1-5 A critical approach to the selection of material has been adopted, with only novel developments in instrumentation, techniques and methodology being included. The major growth areas in evidence were the use of MC-ICP-MS as the method of choice for isotope ratio analyses, and new applications of AMS. The decline in the number of fundamental studies and developments in chemometrics continued. Some novel instrumental methods, such as the portable liquid electrode plasma, were reported and there were many new applications of solid phase extractants for on-line sample pretreatment, particularly using carbon nanotubes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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