Navi Mumbai, India
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Kulkarni A.,Srtr Government Medical College | Tarkase A.S.,Srtr Government Medical College | Chaudhari S.A.,Srtr Government Medical College
Pravara Medical Review | Year: 2012

IClonidine has been used as an adjuvant to local anesthetics in order to extend the duration of analgesia in various regional and central neuraxial blockades. The present study was carried out on sixty patients of ASA (American Society of Anaesthesiologists) grade I and II, undergoing upper limb orthopaedic procedures. The study aimed to investigate the effect of addition of Clonidine to Bupivacaine in brachial plexus block with respect to the onset, and duration of sensory block and postoperative analgesic requirements. Patients were randomly divided in two groups, thirty each. Group A (n = 30) patients received 25 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and 0.5 ml (75mcg) Clonidine, whereas group B(n = 30) received 25 ml of 0.25% Bupivacaine and 0.5 ml normal saline through a supraclavicular approach. Onset and duration of sensory blocks and side effects were recorded in both the groups. It was found that addition of Clonidine to Bupivacaine in brachial plexus block had faster onset of sensory block and also prolonged the duration of analgesia, without any major side effects other than sedation, which is beneficial in clinical practice.


Mogarekar M.R.,SRTR Government Medical College | Rojekar M.V.,SRTR Government Medical College
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate arylesterase and lactonase activity of paraoxonase (PON)1 in cord blood of neonates in relation to their birth weight. The authors hypothesized that cord blood PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activities will be compromised in neonates having low birth weight. Methods: Eighty neonates born in authors' hospital, irrespective of mode of delivery were included. Forty children with low birth weight were included in case group and 40 with normal birth weight were included as controls. PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activities were measured. Results: Serum arylesterase activity decreased significantly in low birth weight babies (p<0.05). Linear regression analysis (R=0.728) indicated significant correlation between arylesterase and birth weight. Serum lactonase activity was also reduced in low birth weight babies. Its linear regression analysis (R=0.727) indicated significant correlation between lactonase and birth weight. Conclusions: PON 1 activity is significantly reduced among low birth weight babies in comparison to normal weight babies. © 2013 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.


Dhule S.,SRTR Government Medical College | Gawali S.,SRTR Government Medical College
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disorder that affects cellular metabolism in variety of ways and coagulation indices are reported to be adversely affected.Insulin resistance is a marked pathophysiology of Type II diabetes causing abnormalities in the microvascular and macrovascular circulations. The entire coagulation cascade is dysfunctional in such condition. Platelets may assume an important role in atherosclerosis in diabetes. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) are haematological indices that give an idea about the coagulation status of patients. Hence the present study is undertaken to see the effect of diabetes on platelet aggregation and coagulation parameters like PT and APTT. Aims & Objective: To study platelet aggregation and clotting time (PT, APTT) in type II diabetic males. Materials and Methods: The present study included 30 type II diabetic males and 30 normal male subjects. Platelet aggregation was studied by O Brein J R method using ADP reagent. Clotting time (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time) was estimated by using coagulometer. Results: ADP induced platelet aggregation was significantly higher while PT and APTT were significantly lower in diabetic group compared with control group (p<0.05) by applying unpaired 't' test. Conclusion: Our study showed increased platelet agreeability and decreased PT, APTT in type II diabetic males. So, type II diabetic patients are more prone to diseases such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease.


Kulkarni V.L.,Srtr Government Medical College | Kulkarni D.M.,Srtr Government Medical College | Nilekar S.L.,Srtr Government Medical College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2014

Urinary tract infection is one of the most common diseases in children. It is associated with high morbidity and long term complications. The current study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile and antibiogram of uropathogens causing UTI among the pediatric age group. The study population included 0 to12 years old patients, who were clinically suspected to have a UTI. The urine samples were collected and processed by conventional microbiological methods and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Among 352 cases, 64 had their urine culture positive. In Infants, there was a male preponderance for culture proven UTI and in the age group 1-12 years there was female preponderance. Also, overall there was female preponderance. Predominant uropathogens isolated in our study were E.coli followed by Klebsiella species. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Accurate knowledge on local epidemiology and antibiogram of uropathogens among pediatric patients is necessary for treatment.


Mogarekar M.R.,Srtr Government Medical College | Kulkarni S.K.,Diagnostic Laboratory
Archives of Medical Research | Year: 2015

Background and Aims: Atherosclerosis, the root cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), has a number of risk factors-some modifiable and some not. CVD increases in women particularly during the postmenopausal period. Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL), a subclass of LDL, is an important determinant of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Paraoxonase1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme that prevents oxidative modifications in LDL and HDL. With this background, we studied the sdLDL-C, PON1 and lipid profile in postmenopausal women to compare between quality and quantity of LDL. Methods: We studied 80 pre- and postmenopausal women (40/group). The following parameters were studied: lipid profile, sdLDL-C and PON1 levels. With proper statistical tools the correlation between these parameters was studied. Results: Postmenopausal women, in comparison with premenopausal women, have significantly increased levels of serum triglycerides and sdLDL-C and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and significantly decreased levels of HDL-C and PON1. PON1 activity was negatively correlated with age, TC, TG, LDL-C and sdLDL-C (r = -0.574, -0.119, -0.226, -0.473 and -0.455, respectively) and positively correlated with HDL-C (r = 0.368), whereas sdLDL-C was positively correlated with age, TC, TG, LDL-C (r = 0.633, 0.485, 0.561 and 0.705, respectively) and negatively with HDL-C (r = -0.235). Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated HDL-C and menopausal status as the best determinant for PON1 (R2 = 0.320, p < 0.05) and menopausal status, LDL-C, TG, and TC were the best determinants for sdLDL-C (R2 = 0.606, p < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest quality, i.e., sdLDL-C, is more important than only LDL-C levels. Similarly, decrease in PON1 and increase in sdLDL-C go hand in hand. This shows that antioxidant capacity is compromised with a qualitative downfall in lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. © 2015 IMSS.


Rojekar M.,Rajiv Gandhi Medical College | Mogarekar M.,Srtr Government Medical College | Adhe-Rojekar A.,Pd Hinduja National Hospital
Turkish Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2016

Purpose: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin that appear to promote development of cardiovascular disease. It has become one of the most important topics for this decade because of marked increase in cardiovascular disease associated with risk factors. Paraoxonase (PON) is a family of three enzymes, PON1, PON2 and PON3, the gene which is located on chromosome 7. This is high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme with antioxidant activity. The objective of the present study aimed at measurement of PON1 activities in patients with MetS, to compare PON1 activities in patients with MetS with those in controls and assess its relationship with the lipoproteins in serum. Material and Method: Cases were included as per the criteria put forth by the International Diabetes Federation. Serum PON1 activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 20.0. Result: Serum PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activities were found to be reduced significantly in patients with MetS than in controls. PON1 activities showed a positive correlation with HDL, fasting blood glucose and diastolic blood pressure. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between PON1 activities and body mass index. Discussion: From the present study, it is clear that reduction in PON1 activities in MetS is mainly due either to abnormalities with synthesis or secretion of HDL cholesterol or oxidative stress as a consequence of excess production of the free radicals. This study also iterates that it is the quality and not the quantity of HDL cholesterol is important while studying the pathophysiology of MetS. © Turkish Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism.


Kulkarni D.M.,SRTR Government Medical College | Bardapurkar S.A.,SRTR Government Medical College | Nilekar S.L.,SRTR Government Medical College | Kulkarni V.L.,SRTR Government Medical College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2015

Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease remain significant causes of cardiovascular disease and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. The identification of the first attack of rheumatic fever/carditis is of paramount importance to prevent further episodes and residual cardiac damage. In the present study, we report the significance of antistreptolysin-O (ASO) test in the diagnosis of RF and RHD. The study aimed to determine ASO titre in normal children & in those with rheumatic fever. Blood samples of 200 children clinically diagnosed as ARF/RHD and of 100 normal children aged 5-15 years were screened for ASO antibodies by latex agglutination test. Seropositivity of ASO antibodies was 77% in ARF/ RHD cases and 21% in control children. A total of 41% ARF/RHD cases and 14% of control children showed an ASO titre of 200IU/ml. Seropositivity of ASO antibodies was slightly more in females than males in cases as well as control. It can be suggested from our study that ASO titre of >200IU/ml or above should be taken as a diagnostic titre in the pediatric age group of our geographic area.


Mogarekar M.R.,SRTR Government Medical College | Chawhan S.S.,SRTR Government Medical College
Indian Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Context: The human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is calcium-dependent esterase and associates with the high density serum lipoproteins. PON1 plays a major role in oxidation of high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein and prevention of atherogenesis in coronary heart disease. PON1Q and R allele hydrolyses number of substrates like paraoxon (PO) (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and phenylacetate. Aims: The aim of the study is to the determination of Q192R polymorphism of PON1 by using non-toxic substrate p-nitrophenylacetate and compares it with the phenotype determined by using PO as substrate. Materials and Methods: The study group consists of 60 healthy normal patients. Paraoxonase activity was measured using the procedure described by Eckerson (Reference method) and for phenotyping; the ratio of hydrolysis of PO in the presence of 1 M NaCl (salt-stimulated PON1, SALT) to the hydrolysis of phenylacetate (PA) is calculated. In new method (Haagen et al.) arylesterase activity measured using p-nitrophenylacetate and for phenotyping arylesterase, the ratio of inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate (substrate) by phenyl acetate to non-inhibited hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate (inhibited arylesterase activity (IA-IA 0 )/non-inhibited arylesterase activity (NIA). Results: It was found that paraoxonase activity is trimodally distributed in both the methods. There is no significant difference in the distribution of PON1 phenotypes of both reference method and new method being frequencies 0.946 and 0.376 respectively and there was no significant difference for phenotypic polymorphism for an individual by both methods (χ2 = 0.15 and P = 0.9262). Conclusion: The Q192R polymorphism of PON1 by using non-toxic substrate p-nitrophenylacetate showed trimodal distribution of QQ (homozygous), QR (heterozygous), and RR (homozygous) phenotype and it is comparable with reference method. This method can be used for PON1 phenotype in different pathological and complex disease conditions.


PubMed | SRTR Government Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of pediatrics | Year: 2014

To evaluate arylesterase and lactonase activity of paraoxonase (PON)1 in cord blood of neonates in relation to their birth weight. The authors hypothesized that cord blood PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activities will be compromised in neonates having low birth weight.Eighty neonates born in authors hospital, irrespective of mode of delivery were included. Forty children with low birth weight were included in case group and 40 with normal birth weight were included as controls. PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activities were measured.Serum arylesterase activity decreased significantly in low birth weight babies (p < 0.05). Linear regression analysis (R = 0.728) indicated significant correlation between arylesterase and birth weight. Serum lactonase activity was also reduced in low birth weight babies. Its linear regression analysis (R = 0.727) indicated significant correlation between lactonase and birth weight.PON 1 activity is significantly reduced among low birth weight babies in comparison to normal weight babies.


PubMed | Diagnostic Laboratory and Srtr Government Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of medical research | Year: 2015

Atherosclerosis, the root cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), has a number of risk factors-some modifiable and some not. CVD increases in women particularly during the postmenopausal period. Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL), a subclass of LDL, is an important determinant of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Paraoxonase1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme that prevents oxidative modifications in LDL and HDL. With this background, we studied the sdLDL-C, PON1 and lipid profile in postmenopausal women to compare between quality and quantity of LDL.We studied 80 pre- and postmenopausal women (40/group). The following parameters were studied: lipid profile, sdLDL-C and PON1 levels. With proper statistical tools the correlation between these parameters was studied.Postmenopausal women, in comparison with premenopausal women, have significantly increased levels of serum triglycerides and sdLDL-C and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and significantly decreased levels of HDL-C and PON1. PON1 activity was negatively correlated with age, TC, TG, LDL-C and sdLDL-C (r = -0.574, -0.119, -0.226, -0.473 and -0.455, respectively) and positively correlated with HDL-C (r = 0.368), whereas sdLDL-C was positively correlated with age, TC, TG, LDL-C (r = 0.633, 0.485, 0.561 and 0.705, respectively) and negatively with HDL-C (r = -0.235). Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated HDL-C and menopausal status as the best determinant for PON1 (R(2) = 0.320, p < 0.05) and menopausal status, LDL-C, TG, and TC were the best determinants for sdLDL-C (R(2) = 0.606, p < 0.05).The results of the present study suggest quality, i.e., sdLDL-C, is more important than only LDL-C levels. Similarly, decrease in PON1 and increase in sdLDL-C go hand in hand. This shows that antioxidant capacity is compromised with a qualitative downfall in lipoproteins in postmenopausal women.

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