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Navi Mumbai, India

Sinha R.S.,Grant Medical College | Chaware P.N.,Shri Vasantrao Naik Government Medical College | Pandit S.V.,Shri Vasantrao Naik Government Medical College | Motewar Sapana S.,Srtr Government Medical College
Journal of Morphological Sciences | Year: 2012

As per the medical and surgical aspects, nerve supply of upper limb is very important which is provided by brachial plexus. The aim of this study was to provide concise and relevant information about the variations in branching pattern of the brachial plexus. Material and methods: The material for the present study comprised of 40 upper limbs which belonged to 20 adult human cadavers of known sex. These were serialized and dissected according to the methods described in Cunningham's Manual. Results: In the present study, 35[87.50%] cases showed normal branching pattern of cords of brachial plexus and in 5[12.5%] cases, variant branching pattern was observed. Out of five variant cases, in first case we found two upper subscapular nerves, axillary nerve and lower subscapular nerve arose from posterior division of upper trunk and the nerve to latissimusdorsi arose from posterior division of middle trunk and not from posterior cord. In the second case upper subscapular nerve and axillary nerve arose from posterior division of upper trunk. In other three cases median nerve was observed to form by three roots, fibres of C7 root to ulnar nerve which are seldom visualised were observed and a communicating branch by musculocutaneous nerve to median nerve was seen. Conclusion: The findings of the present study will be of fundamental importance to the physicians, surgeons, radiologists and of course this knowledge is very important for anatomists during routine classroom dissection. Source


Mogarekar M.R.,Srtr Government Medical College | Kulkarni S.K.,Diagnostic Laboratory
Archives of Medical Research | Year: 2015

Background and Aims: Atherosclerosis, the root cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), has a number of risk factors-some modifiable and some not. CVD increases in women particularly during the postmenopausal period. Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL), a subclass of LDL, is an important determinant of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Paraoxonase1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme that prevents oxidative modifications in LDL and HDL. With this background, we studied the sdLDL-C, PON1 and lipid profile in postmenopausal women to compare between quality and quantity of LDL. Methods: We studied 80 pre- and postmenopausal women (40/group). The following parameters were studied: lipid profile, sdLDL-C and PON1 levels. With proper statistical tools the correlation between these parameters was studied. Results: Postmenopausal women, in comparison with premenopausal women, have significantly increased levels of serum triglycerides and sdLDL-C and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and significantly decreased levels of HDL-C and PON1. PON1 activity was negatively correlated with age, TC, TG, LDL-C and sdLDL-C (r = -0.574, -0.119, -0.226, -0.473 and -0.455, respectively) and positively correlated with HDL-C (r = 0.368), whereas sdLDL-C was positively correlated with age, TC, TG, LDL-C (r = 0.633, 0.485, 0.561 and 0.705, respectively) and negatively with HDL-C (r = -0.235). Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated HDL-C and menopausal status as the best determinant for PON1 (R2 = 0.320, p < 0.05) and menopausal status, LDL-C, TG, and TC were the best determinants for sdLDL-C (R2 = 0.606, p < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest quality, i.e., sdLDL-C, is more important than only LDL-C levels. Similarly, decrease in PON1 and increase in sdLDL-C go hand in hand. This shows that antioxidant capacity is compromised with a qualitative downfall in lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. © 2015 IMSS. Source


Mogarekar M.R.,Srtr Government Medical College | Rojekar M.V.,Srtr Government Medical College
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate arylesterase and lactonase activity of paraoxonase (PON)1 in cord blood of neonates in relation to their birth weight. The authors hypothesized that cord blood PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activities will be compromised in neonates having low birth weight. Methods: Eighty neonates born in authors' hospital, irrespective of mode of delivery were included. Forty children with low birth weight were included in case group and 40 with normal birth weight were included as controls. PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activities were measured. Results: Serum arylesterase activity decreased significantly in low birth weight babies (p<0.05). Linear regression analysis (R=0.728) indicated significant correlation between arylesterase and birth weight. Serum lactonase activity was also reduced in low birth weight babies. Its linear regression analysis (R=0.727) indicated significant correlation between lactonase and birth weight. Conclusions: PON 1 activity is significantly reduced among low birth weight babies in comparison to normal weight babies. © 2013 Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation. Source


Dhule S.,Srtr Government Medical College | Gawali S.,Srtr Government Medical College
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disorder that affects cellular metabolism in variety of ways and coagulation indices are reported to be adversely affected.Insulin resistance is a marked pathophysiology of Type II diabetes causing abnormalities in the microvascular and macrovascular circulations. The entire coagulation cascade is dysfunctional in such condition. Platelets may assume an important role in atherosclerosis in diabetes. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) are haematological indices that give an idea about the coagulation status of patients. Hence the present study is undertaken to see the effect of diabetes on platelet aggregation and coagulation parameters like PT and APTT. Aims & Objective: To study platelet aggregation and clotting time (PT, APTT) in type II diabetic males. Materials and Methods: The present study included 30 type II diabetic males and 30 normal male subjects. Platelet aggregation was studied by O Brein J R method using ADP reagent. Clotting time (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time) was estimated by using coagulometer. Results: ADP induced platelet aggregation was significantly higher while PT and APTT were significantly lower in diabetic group compared with control group (p<0.05) by applying unpaired 't' test. Conclusion: Our study showed increased platelet agreeability and decreased PT, APTT in type II diabetic males. So, type II diabetic patients are more prone to diseases such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease. Source


Mogarekar M.R.,Srtr Government Medical College | Chawhan S.S.,Srtr Government Medical College
Indian Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Context: The human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is calcium-dependent esterase and associates with the high density serum lipoproteins. PON1 plays a major role in oxidation of high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein and prevention of atherogenesis in coronary heart disease. PON1Q and R allele hydrolyses number of substrates like paraoxon (PO) (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and phenylacetate. Aims: The aim of the study is to the determination of Q192R polymorphism of PON1 by using non-toxic substrate p-nitrophenylacetate and compares it with the phenotype determined by using PO as substrate. Materials and Methods: The study group consists of 60 healthy normal patients. Paraoxonase activity was measured using the procedure described by Eckerson (Reference method) and for phenotyping; the ratio of hydrolysis of PO in the presence of 1 M NaCl (salt-stimulated PON1, SALT) to the hydrolysis of phenylacetate (PA) is calculated. In new method (Haagen et al.) arylesterase activity measured using p-nitrophenylacetate and for phenotyping arylesterase, the ratio of inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate (substrate) by phenyl acetate to non-inhibited hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate (inhibited arylesterase activity (IA-IA 0 )/non-inhibited arylesterase activity (NIA). Results: It was found that paraoxonase activity is trimodally distributed in both the methods. There is no significant difference in the distribution of PON1 phenotypes of both reference method and new method being frequencies 0.946 and 0.376 respectively and there was no significant difference for phenotypic polymorphism for an individual by both methods (χ2 = 0.15 and P = 0.9262). Conclusion: The Q192R polymorphism of PON1 by using non-toxic substrate p-nitrophenylacetate showed trimodal distribution of QQ (homozygous), QR (heterozygous), and RR (homozygous) phenotype and it is comparable with reference method. This method can be used for PON1 phenotype in different pathological and complex disease conditions. Source

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