Nānded, India
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Nile S.H.,SRTM University | Nile S.H.,Konkuk University | Park S.W.,Konkuk University
Chemical Biology and Drug Design | Year: 2014

Chemical investigations into maize (Zea mays L.) kernels yielded phenolic compounds, which were structurally established using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The isolated phenolic compounds from maize kernel were examined in vitro for their antioxidant abilities by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine) radical, OH radical scavenging activity, and reducing ability, along with α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition. The isolated maize phenolics revealed significant xanthine oxidase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity to that of allopurinol and acarbose in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The kinetics study with xanthine oxidase revealed competitive type of inhibition by isolated maize vanillic acid (M2), ferulic acid (M5), 3′-methoxyhirsutrin (M7), and peonidin-3-glucoside (M10) as compared to control allopurinol. Overall, with few exceptions, all the phenolic compounds from maize kernel revealed significant biological activities with all parameters examined. Also, the phenolic compounds from maize were found to be more reactive toward DPPH radical and had considerable reducing ability and OH radical scavenging activity. These findings suggest that maize kernel phenolic compounds can be considered as potential antioxidant, α-glucosidase, and XO inhibitory agents those might be further explored for the design of lead antioxidant, antidiabetic and antigout drug candidates using in vivo trials. Chemical investigations of maize kernels yielded ten phenolic compounds which were structurally established using chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. The isolated phenolics (M1-M10) were studied for antioxidant abilities by DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing ability, and OH radical scavenging activity, with α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase inhibition. The isolated maize phenolics revealed potent xanthine oxidase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity to that of allopurinaol and acarbose in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The kinetics study with xanthine oxidase reveled competitive type of inhibition to vanillic acid (M2), ferulic acid (M5), 3′- methoxyhirsutrin (M7), and peonidin-3-glucoside (M10) isolated compounds from maize as compared to control allopurinol. Overall, with few exceptions, all the phenolic compounds from maize kernel showed significant biological activities with all parameters examined in this study. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Mene R.U.,Srtm University | Mahabole M.P.,Srtm University | Khairnar R.S.,Srtm University
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2011

Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) is used to modify the structural and gas sensing properties of Hydroxyapatite (HAp) thick films. The HAp thick films, prepared by screen printing technique, are irradiated with a variable fluence (3×1010 to 3×1013ions/cm2) of Ag7+ ions of 100MeV energy. XRD shows gradual change in crystallinity of the matrix with increase in ion fluence. Atomic force microscopy reveals the agglomeration of grains with pronounced cluster type structure at relatively higher ion fluence. For confirmation of efficient gas sensing of pristine and irradiated HAp thick films, repeatability and reproducibility tests are conducted in a carbon dioxide atmosphere. The parameters responsible for device applications such as, gas uptake capacity, response to test gas and recovery time of HAp film sensor are also investigated. SHI modified HAp films show the maximum enhancement in the gas response and also in increased gas uptake capacity for the fluence 3×1011ions/cm2. Moreover, SHI has resulted in modification of gas response and recovery time for CO2 gas. The remarkable observation is to note that SHI irradiation improves the sensor characteristics of the HAp films without affecting the working temperature (165°C) of gas sensor. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Shinde R.B.,SRTM University | Raut J.S.,SRTM University | Karuppayil M.S.,SRTM University
Mycoscience | Year: 2012

Candida albicans has the ability to colonize various materials used in prostheses. In this report, we have studied the kinetics of biofilm formation on prosthetic materials and their susceptibility to fluconazole at various stages of development. Results indicated that C. albicans efficiently adheres to and colonizes polystyrene, polyvinylchloride, silicon, and polycarbonate surfaces. Candida albicans biofilm formation was observed to be both strain- and substrate dependent. Adhesion of cells to solid substrates was found sufficient to induce fluconazole resistance. Drug susceptibility at different stages of biofilm growth showed that Candida biofilms on these substrates are highly resistant to fluconazole. The study focuses on the limitations of fluconazole to combat biofilm-related infections and emphasizes the need for better therapeutic strategies against prosthesis-associated C. albicans infections. © 2011 The Mycological Society of Japan and Springer.

Kalamse V.,Srtm University | Wadnerkar N.,Srtm University | Deshmukh A.,Srtm University | Chaudhari A.,Srtm University
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2012

The hydrogen storage capacity of Ti-acetylene (C 2H 2Ti) and Li-acetylene (C 2H 2Li) complex has been tested using second order Møller Plesset method with different basis sets. Single Ti(Li) decorated acetylene complex can adsorb maximum of five(four) hydrogen molecules, which corresponds to the gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity of 12(19.65) wt % and it meets the target of 9 wt % by 2015 specified by US Department of Energy. The hydrogen adsorption energies with zero point energy and Gibbs free energy correction show that hydrogen adsorption on C 2H 2Ti is energetically favourable for a wide range of temperature and that is unfavourable on C 2H 2Li complex even at a very low temperature. Atom centered density matrix propagation molecular dynamics simulations reveal that four H 2 molecules remain adsorbed on C 2H 2Ti complex at 300 K. Though H 2 uptake capacity of C 2H 2Li complex is higher than that of C 2H 2Ti complex, the thermochemistry results favour to C 2H 2Ti complex over C 2H 2Li complex as a possible hydrogen storage media. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Routh M.M.,SRTM University | Raut J.S.,SRTM University | Karuppayil S.M.,SRTM University
Chemotherapy | Year: 2011

Background: Anticancer/antineoplastic agents could be a good resource for the discovery of novel antifungal agents and targets since human beings share a common eukaryotic heritage with fungi. Methods: Thirty commonly prescribed anticancer drugs belonging to 12 different classes were analyzed for their effects on the growth of Candida albicans. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were obtained using standard CLSI-M27 A2 methodology, and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined via the agar plate method. Results: Anticancer agents inhibited the growth of C. albicans in a concentration-dependent manner. Nine drugs from different classes were effective at low concentrations (≤50 μg·ml-1), while 15 anticancer drugs exhibited MICs of 100 μg·ml-1. Sixteen out of 30 drugs exerted fungicidal activity in the range of 400-800 μg·ml-1. Conclusions: MICs and MFCs for 30 anticancer drugs were established against C. albicans. Our study highlighted the anti-Candida potential of these drugs, which may give insights to unexplored targets for antifungal chemotherapy. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Gacche R.N.,Srtm University | Kaid A.M.S.,Srtm University
Hepatitis Monthly | Year: 2012

Background: Objectives: The study was undertaken to study the epidemiology and prevalence of viral hepatitis (HBV) and (HCV) in Ibb city, Yemen. Patients and Methods: 554 pre-designed questionnaires and sera samples were collected in July 2010. Sera were tested for HBsAg and HCV antibodies by ELISA quantitative technique. Each individual's data were collected in a pre-designed questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of HBV in Ibb city was 1.81 %, whereas, the prevalence of HCV was 1.99 %. Conclusions: This study revealed low level risk of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections. Inadequate information on the prevalence and risk determinants of viral hepatitis among the different population groups in Yemen are responsible about morbidity and mortality of HBV and HCV in Ibb city, Yemen. © 2012 Kowsar Corp.

Haleem Khan A.A.,SRTM University | Mohan Karuppayil S.,SRTM University
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health. © 2012.

Pathak A.P.,SRTM University | Deshmukh K.B.,SRTM University
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2012

A bacterium producing an alkaline protease was isolated from the Lonar soda lake, Buldhana district (19°58' N; 76°31' E), Maharashtra, India. The most appropriate medium for the growth and protease production was composed of (g/L): casein 10; yeast extract 4; KH2PO4 0.5, K2HPO4 0.5 and CaCl2 0.5. The enzyme showed maximum activity with and without 5 mM Ca2+ at 70 and 60 °C, respectively. The enzyme retained 40 and 82% of its initial activity after heating for 60 min at 60 °C, in absence and presence of 5 mM CaCl2 respectively. The enzyme remained active and stable at pH 8-12, with an optimum at pH 10. The enzyme showed stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants, and oxidizing agents. It also showed excellent stability and compatibility with commonly used laundry detergents. Wash performance analysis revealed that enzyme could effectively remove blood stains. It also showed decomposition of gelatinous coating on X- ray film.

Shinde R.B.,SRTM University | Chauhan N.M.,SRTM University | Raut J.S.,SRTM University | Karuppayil S.M.,SRTM University
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials | Year: 2012

Background: Biofilms formed by Candida albicans are resistant towards most of the available antifungal drugs. Therefore, infections associated with Candida biofilms are considered as a threat to immunocompromised patients. Combinatorial drug therapy may be a good strategy to combat C. albicans biofilms.Methods: Combinations of five antifungal drugs- fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VOR), caspofungin (CSP), amphotericin B (AmB) and nystatin (NYT) with cyclosporine A (CSA) were tested in vitro against planktonic and biofilm growth of C. albicans. Standard broth micro dilution method was used to study planktonic growth, while biofilms were studied in an in vitro biofilm model. A chequerboard format was used to determine fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) of combination effects. Biofilm growth was analyzed using XTT-metabolic assay.Results: MICs of various antifungal drugs for planktonic growth of C. albicans were lowered in combination with CSA by 2 to 16 fold. Activity against biofilm development with FIC indices of 0.26, 0.28, 0.31 and 0.25 indicated synergistic interactions between FLC-CSA, VOR-CSA, CSP-CSA and AmB-CSA, respectively. Increase in efficacy of the drugs FLC, VOR and CSP against mature biofilms after addition of 62.5 μg/ml of CSA was evident with FIC indices 0.06, 0.14 and 0.37, respectively.Conclusions: The combinations with CSA resulted in increased susceptibility of biofilms to antifungal drugs. Combination of antifungal drugs with CSA would be an effective prophylactic and therapeutic strategy against biofilm associated C. albicans infections. © 2012 Shinde et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Chauhan N.M.,SRTM University | Raut J.S.,SRTM University | Karuppayil S.M.,SRTM University
Mycoses | Year: 2011

Regulation of morphogenesis through the production of chemical signalling molecules such as isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, 1-dodecanol, E-nerolidol and farnesol is reported in Candida albicans. The present study focuses on the effect of ethyl alcohol on C. albicans dimorphism and biofilm development. Ethyl alcohol inhibited germ tube formation induced by the four standard inducers in a concentration-dependent manner. The germ tube inhibitory concentration (4%) did not have any effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans cells. Ethyl alcohol also inhibited the elongation of germ tubes. Four percentage of ethyl alcohol significantly inhibited biofilm development on polystyrene and silicone surfaces. We suggest a potential morphogenetic regulatory role for ethyl alcohol, which may influence dissemination, virulence and establishment of infection. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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