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Srinivasan A.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Ramaswamy V.,Central Research Institute for Physics | Kuruvilla S.,SriRamachandra University | Sehgal P.K.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Balakrishnan K.,Malar Fortis Hospital
Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery | Year: 2012

Objective: To understand the morphology and mineral content in calcified atherosclerotic plaques. Background: Recent findings suggest that plaque calcification is biologically organized and regulated. Knowledge of morphology, location and mineral content of calcification in a plaque, could provide valuable insights into developing therapeutic interventions for calcific atherosclerotic disease. Methods: We studied various patterns of calcification in atherosclerotic plaques using light and electron microscopy and analyzed their mineral composition by spectroscopic techniques. Results: Early luminal deposits in the intima are globular, measuring ~1. 5 μm and are basically calcium phosphate while deeper deposits in the media are lamellar and sheet like with sharp spicular edges and composed of calcium colocalized with cholesterol. Sulfur and Silicon are also present in these deposits. Calcification around lipid, as seen using transmission electron microscopy, starts as an encrustation around individual lipid vesicles which progresses and eventually replaces the lipid droplets entirely. Conclusion: The mineral composition and the morphological appearance of the calcium seems to vary depending upon its location. © 2012 Indian Association of Cardiovascular-Thoracic Surgeons.

Srimathi T.,Sriramachandra University | Muthukumar T.,Sriramachandra University | Anandarani V.S.,Sriramachandra University | Sembian U.,Sriramachandra University | Subramanian R.,Sriramachandra University
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2012

Aim: To measure the angle of anteversion of femoral neck in both gender types and on both sides and to correlate it clinically. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out to determine the average femoral neck anteversion in Indian population. The angle was measured mechanically on 164 dry femora 88 right and 76 left intact, dried adult human femora (unpaired) with 81 male type bones and 83 female type bones were studied by conventional methods. The results obtained were statiscally analysed. Results: The angle between centre head neck line to transcondylar line was measured using goniometer in 164 dry bones and the mean value was 9.8 deg. The mean value was 9.49 deg on the right side and 10.13 deg for the left side femora with a standard deviation of 1.66 and 1.50 respectively showing a higher angle in the left side femora. A statistically signifcant difference of 0.64 was found for the angle of anteversion between the right and left side bones with a 'p' value of.000. The mean value of male type bones was 9.78 deg and 9.79 deg of female type bones with a standard devation of 1.70 and 1.54 respectively. Though the value was higher in the female type bones, no statistically signifcant difference was found for the angle of anteversion between the male-and female-type bones in the present study. 7.9% bones were in the range of 0-8°, 54.2% bones were in the range of 8-10°, 21.9% were in the range of 10-12°, 15.8% bones had angle more than 12° showing most bones with a value of anteversion in the range of 8-10°. Conclusion: Any increase or decrease in the angle of femoral anteversion is associated with various clinical conditions. It increases in Perthes disease, cerebral palsy, anterior poliomyelitis, postural defects, apparent genu valgum, external tibial torsion, fat foot, and intoing. The decreased femoral torsion has been shown to be associated with toing out, rickets, chondrodystrophy. The data established in this study will be useful for various orthopaedic procedures and diagnosis, in the felds of General Human Osteology and Forensic anthropology.

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