Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College Autonomous

Tiruchirappalli, India

Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College Autonomous

Tiruchirappalli, India
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Athesh K.,Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College Autonomous | Jothi G.,Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College Autonomous
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2017

Objective: To study the anti-obesity potential of aqueous rhizome extract of Acorus calamus Linn. (AREAC) in high-fat diet (HFD) fed obese rats. Methods: Adult strain male Wistar rats used in this study were fed with HFD for 60 days. For the treatment groups, AREAC was administered in a dose levels of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg bw, orally once a day along with HFD. Rats fed with normal pellet chow were served as normal control. The effect of AREAC on physical parameters such as body weight, organ weight, fat pad weights, and various biochemical parameters such as serum glucose, insulin, leptin, lipid profile, liver markers, kidney markers, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. In vitro pancreatic lipase inhibition assay of AREAC was also studied. Results: Data of in vivo studies revealed significant (p<0.05) reduction in percentage body weight gain, organ weights, fat pad weights and levels of serum glucose, insulin, and leptin after treatment with AREAC in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, administration of AREAC significantly inhibited the increases in the concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, free fatty acid, and phospholipids in a dose dependent manner whereas, the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was found to be elevated on treatment. Moreover, on treatment with a test drug, the elevated levels of serum liver and kidney markers such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, urea, and creatinine were also brought back to near normalcy. Antioxidant status was found to be enhanced in liver tissues after treatment. In vitro studies showed significant inhibition in the activity of pancreatic lipase by AREAC. Conclusion: The data of the results obtained clearly depicted that AREAC was found to have pronounced anti-obesity activity particularly at the dose levels of 300 mg/kg bw. © 2017 The Authors.

Nisha S.A.,Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College Autonomous | Nisha S.A.,Alagappa University | Devi K.P.,Alagappa University
Pharmaceutical biology | Year: 2017

CONTEXT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is believed to develop due to deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide. Hence, efforts are being made to develop potent drug that target amyloid hypothesis.OBJECTIVE: The present study explores the effect of the seaweed Gelidiella acerosa (Forsskål) Feldmann & Hamel (Gelidiellaceae) against Aβ 25-35 peptide in Swiss albino mice.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animals were administered through intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with the Aβ 25-35 peptide (10 μg/10 μL/ICV site) on 21st day of the pretreatment of G. acerosa (whole plant) benzene extract (200 and 400 mg/kg bw). On day 30, animals were sacrificed and brain tissue homogenate was prepared. The activities of AChE, BuChE, b-secretase, MAO-B, and caspase-3 were determined, and Bax expression was assessed by Western blotting.RESULTS: Gelidiella acerosa benzene extract restored the level of antioxidant enzymes and prevented lipid and protein oxidation significantly (p < 0.05). The extract protected the mice from cholinergic deficit significantly (p < 0.05) by inhibiting the activities of AChE and BuChE, which was about 0.116 ± 0.0088 U/mg of protein and 0.011 ± 0.0014 U/mg of protein respectively, which was otherwise increased in peptide-treated group (0.155 ± 0.007 U/mg of protein and 0.015 ± 0.0012 U/mg of protein respectively). Interestingly, G. acerosa benzene extract inhibited β-secretase and MAO-B activity. Reduction (p < 0.05) in level of caspase-3 activity and Bax expression suggests that G. acerosa protects the cells from apoptosis.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results suggest that G. acerosa possesses excellent neuroprotective potential against peptide mediated toxicity under in vivo conditions.

Santhakumari R.,Government Arts College for Women Autonomous | Meenakshi R.,Cauvery College for Women | Jayasree R.,Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College Autonomous | Bhuvaneswari M.,Dhanalakshmi College of Engineering
Journal of Molecular Structure | Year: 2017

Single crystal of L-2-aminobutyric acid (ABA) was grown from water by slow evaporation at room temperature. The crystalline nature of the grown crystal was confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction studies. The grown crystal was subjected to FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral analyses to confirm the presence of functional group and molecular structure respectively. Thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The range and percentage of optical transmission was ascertained by recording UV–vis–NIR spectrum. The electronic charge distribution and reactivity of the molecules within the crystal were studied by HOMO and LUMO analysis and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) of the grown crystal was performed using the B3LYP method. The anti-bacterial activities of the crystal were performed by disk diffusion method against the standard bacteria E. coli. The crystal exhibits good anti-bacterial activity. Second harmonic generation efficiency of the powdered ABA crystal was tested using Nd:YAG laser and it is found to be ∼3.3 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Kirubakaran S.A.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University | Kirubakaran S.A.,Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College Autonomous | Abdel-Megeed A.,Alexandria University | Senthil-Nathan S.,Manonmaniam Sundaranar University
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2017

The aim of this study was to screen and select Metarhizium spp. for the effective management of rice pest Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenèe. The virulent screening assay with nine Metarhizium soil isolates at the concentration of 1 × 108 conidia/ml on third-instar larvae of C. medinalis have shown that isolates RMT4 and RMT10 caused significant mortality (above 90%) with shorter lethal time than other isolates tested. Molecular sequencing of the EFα-1 region of high virulent Metarhizium isolates RMT4 and RMT10 have confirmed that these isolates belong to the species M. pingshaense. The effect of the two virulent M. pingshaense (RMT4 and RMT10) isolates on larvae development, food consumption of C. medinalis was studied. Larvae were susceptible to both fungal isolates, causing the same level of mortality. In larvae the first instars were the most sensitive with shorter lethal times, while the longest lethal time occurred in fourth instars. Estimation of the LC50 on third instars, showed a lower LC50 for RMT10 treatment than RMT4. Both isolates (RMT4 and RMT10) caused reduced growth and food consumption on third instars. Nutritional indices were declined significantly, but the approximate digestibility (AD) of treated larvae was significantly higher with increase concentration of the fungal conidia (1 × 104, 1 × 105 and 1 × 106). The M. pingshaense isolates are known to cause lethal effects on the pupae of C. medinalis. The RMT10 showed lower LC50 value of 7.94 × 105 conidia/ml on pupae than RMT4, which is 2.75 × 106 conidia/ml. The M. pingshaense RMT10 exhibited greater potential as a treatment against C. medinalis, rice leaf folder (RLF). © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Thangaraj B.,Bharathidasan University | Rajasekar D.P.,Bharathidasan University | Vijayaraghavan R.,Srimad Andavan Arts and Science College Autonomous | Garlapati D.,Bharathidasan University | And 3 more authors.
3 Biotech | Year: 2017

Cyanobacterial diazotrophs play a significant role in environmental nitrogen economy despite their habitat either tropical or polar. However, the phenomenon by which it copes with temperature induced stress is poorly understood. Temperature response study of psychrophilic and mesophilic Nostoc strains explores their adaptive mechanisms. The selected psychrophilic and mesophilic strains were confirmed as Nostoc punctiforme and Nostoc calcicola respectively, by ultrastructure and 16S rDNA phylogeny. The psychrophilic strain has extensive glycolipid and polysaccharide sheath along with characteristic deposition of cyanophycin, polyhydroxybutyrate granules, and carboxysomes. This is possibly an adaptive strategy exhibited to withstand the freezing temperature and high intense of ultraviolet rays. The biomass measured in terms of dry weight, protein, and chlorophyll indicated a temperature dependant shift in both the psychrophilic and mesophilic strains and attained maximum growth in their respective temperature niches. At low temperature, psychrophilic organism exhibited nitrogenase activity, while mesophilic strains did not. The maximum glutamine synthetase activity was observed at 4 °C for psychrophilic and 37 °C for mesophilic strains. Activity at 4 °C in psychrophilic strains revealed their energetic mechanism even at low temperature. The nitrate and nitrite reductase of both psychrophilic and mesophilic strains showed maximum activity at 37 °C denoting their similar nitrogen assimilating mechanisms for combined nitrogen utilization. The activity studies of nitrogen fixation/assimilation enzymes have differential effects at varying temperatures, which provide valuable insights of physiological contribution and role of Nostoc strains in the biological nitrogen cycle. © 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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