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Rao S.A.M.,Indian Institute of Science | Arimappamagan A.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Pandey P.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Santosh V.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Glioblastoma is one of the common types of primary brain tumors with a median survival of 12-15 months. The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathway is known to be deregulated in 88% of the patients with glioblastoma. 45% of GBM patients show amplifications and activating mutations in EGFR gene leading to the upregulation of the pathway. In the present study, we demonstrate that a brain specific miRNA, miR-219-5p, repressed EGFR by directly binding to its 3′-UTR. The expression of miR-219-5p was downregulated in glioblastoma and the overexpression of miR-219-5p in glioma cell lines inhibited the proliferation, anchorage independent growth and migration. In addition, miR-219-5p inhibited MAPK and PI3K pathways in glioma cell lines in concordance with its ability to target EGFR. The inhibitory effect of miR-219-5p on MAPK and PI3K pathways and glioma cell migration could be rescued by the overexpression of wild type EGFR and vIII mutant of EGFR (both lacking 3′-UTR and thus being insensitive to miR-219-5p) suggesting that the inhibitory effects of miR-219-5p were indeed because of its ability to target EGFR. We also found significant negative correlation between miR-219-5p levels and total as well as phosphorylated forms of EGFR in glioblastoma patient samples. This indicated that the downregulation of miR-219-5p in glioblastoma patients contribute to the increased activity of the RTK pathway by the upregulation of EGFR. Thus, we have identified and characterized miR-219-5p as the RTK regulating novel tumor suppressor miRNA in glioblastoma. © 2013 Rao et al.

Shukla S.,Indian Institute of Science | Patric I.R.P.,Indian Institute of Science | Thinagararjan S.,Indian Institute of Science | Srinivasan S.,Indian Institute of Science | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common, malignant adult primary tumor with dismal patient survival, yet the molecular determinants of patient survival are poorly characterized. Global methylation profile of GBM samples (our cohort; n = 44) using high-resolution methylation microarrays was carried out. Cox regression analysis identified a 9-gene methylation signature that predicted survival in GBM patients. A risk-score derived from methylation signature predicted survival in univariate analysis in our and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. Multivariate analysis identified methylation risk score as an independent survival predictor in TCGA cohort. Methylation risk score stratified the patients into low-risk and high-risk groups with significant survival difference. Network analysis revealed an activated NF-κB pathway association with high-risk group. NF-κB inhibition reversed glioma chemoresistance, and RNA interference studies identified interleukin-6 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 as key NF-κB targets in imparting chemoresistance. Promoter hypermethylation of neuronal pentraxin II (NPTX2), a risky methylated gene, was confirmed by bisulfite sequencing in GBMs. GBMs and glioma cell lines had low levels of NPTX2 transcripts, which could be reversed upon methylation inhibitor treatment. NPTX2 overexpression induced apoptosis, inhibited proliferation and anchorage-independent growth, and rendered glioma cells chemosensitive. Furthermore, NPTX2 repressed NF-κB activity by inhibiting AKT through a p53-PTEN-dependent pathway, thus explaining the hypermethylation and downregulation of NPTX2 in NF-κB-activated high-risk GBMs. Taken together, a 9-gene methylation signature was identified as an independent GBM prognosticator and could be used for GBM risk stratification. Prosurvival NF-κB pathway activation characterized high-risk patients with poor prognosis, indicating it to be a therapeutic target. ©2013 AACR.

Arimappamagan A.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Somasundaram K.,Indian Institute of Science | Thennarasu K.,National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences | Peddagangannagari S.,Indian Institute of Science | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Recent research on glioblastoma (GBM) has focused on deducing gene signatures predicting prognosis. The present study evaluated the mRNA expression of selected genes and correlated with outcome to arrive at a prognostic gene signature.Methods:Patients with GBM (n = 123) were prospectively recruited, treated with a uniform protocol and followed up. Expression of 175 genes in GBM tissue was determined using qRT-PCR. A supervised principal component analysis followed by derivation of gene signature was performed. Independent validation of the signature was done using TCGA data. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis was carried out among patients from TCGA cohort.Results:A 14 gene signature was identified that predicted outcome in GBM. A weighted gene (WG) score was found to be an independent predictor of survival in multivariate analysis in the present cohort (HR = 2.507; B = 0.919; p<0.001) and in TCGA cohort. Risk stratification by standardized WG score classified patients into low and high risk predicting survival both in our cohort (p = <0.001) and TCGA cohort (p = 0.001). Pathway analysis using the most differentially regulated genes (n = 76) between the low and high risk groups revealed association of activated inflammatory/immune response pathways and mesenchymal subtype in the high risk group.Conclusion:We have identified a 14 gene expression signature that can predict survival in GBM patients. A network analysis revealed activation of inflammatory response pathway specifically in high risk group. These findings may have implications in understanding of gliomagenesis, development of targeted therapies and selection of high risk cancer patients for alternate adjuvant therapies. © 2013 Arimappamagan et al.

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