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Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Pandi-Perumal S.R.,Somnogen Inc. | Spence D.W.,Canadian Sleep Institute | Kato H.,Tokyo University of Science | Cardinali D.P.,Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina
Journal of Critical Care | Year: 2010

Melatonin is a versatile molecule, synthesized not only in the pineal gland, but also in many other organs. Melatonin plays an important physiologic role in sleep and circadian rhythm regulation, immunoregulation, antioxidant and mitochondrial-protective functions, reproductive control, and regulation of mood. Melatonin has also been reported as effective in combating various bacterial and viral infections. Melatonin is an effective anti-inflammatory agent in various animal models of inflammation and sepsis, and its anti-inflammatory action has been attributed to inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with consequent reduction of peroxynitrite formation, to the stimulation of various antioxidant enzymes thus contributing to enhance the antioxidant defense, and to protective effects on mitochondrial function and in preventing apoptosis. In a number of animal models of septic shock, as well as in patients with septic disease, melatonin reportedly exerts beneficial effects to arrest cellular damage and multiorgan failure. The significance of these actions in septic shock and its potential usefulness in the treatment of multiorgan failure are discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | De Berardis D.,University of Teramo | Shillcutt S.D.,Mercer University | Brzezinski A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2012

Introduction: Disturbances of circadian rhythms and sleep play an important role in various types of mood disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar depressive disorder (BPD) and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Malfunctioning of the SCNpinealmelatonin link has been suggested as the main cause for these disorders. As a rhythm-regulating factor and as a hormone involved in the regulation of sleep, melatonin is essential for the control of mood and behavior. Areas covered: Melatonin's involvement in various mood disorders is reviewed based on studies undertaken in patients with MDD, BPD and SAD. The chemistry and metabolism of the newly introduced antidepressant, agomelatine, a MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist and 5-HT2c antagonist in brain areas involved in mood regulation are also discussed. Its clinical role in mood regulation, agomelatine's efficacy, safety and tolerability are also reviewed. Expert opinion: Agomelatine, a melatonergic antidepressant with a rapid onset of action, has been shown effective in various types of mood disorders (e.g., MDD, BPD, SAD). Some studies find it superior to other common antidepressants (SSRIs, SNRIs) that are in clinical use today. Agomelatine's efficacy, good tolerability and safety profile suggest that it may become a preferred antidepressant in the near future. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Srinivasan V.,Karpagam University | Singh J.,Civil Aviation Authority | Pandi-Perumal S.R.,Somnogen Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Advances in Therapy | Year: 2010

Traveling through several time zones results in a constellation of symptoms known as jet lag. These include reduced alertness, daytime fatigue, loss of appetite, reduced cognitive skills, and disruption of the sleep/wake cycle. In susceptible air travel passengers, jet lag may exacerbate affective illness and result in psychiatric morbidity. Dysregulation of circadian rhythms and melatonin secretion represent the common underlying factor in jet lag and other circadian disorders. Recent studies have established the effectiveness of strategically timed administration of melatonin and appropriate timed exposure to environmental schedules including light in counteracting the dysregulation (chronobiologic actions). With the introduction of melatonergic agonists such as ramelteon and tasimelteon, which have both a stronger affinity for MT 1 and MT2 melatonin receptors and a longer half-life, new therapeutic options now exist for treating the sleep disturbances associated with jet lag. The melatonin analogs are unique inasmuch as they can also enhance daytime alertness. The recently introduced melatonergic antidepressant agomelatine, which has established its supremacy over other antidepressants in having a significant chronobiologic activity, represents a good choice for treating depressive symptoms that are associated with jet lag. © 2010 Springer Healthcare.

Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Srinivasan V.,Karpagam University | Pandi-Perumal S.R.,Somnogen Inc. | Brzezinsk A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 3 more authors.
Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Drug Discovery | Year: 2011

Melatonin is a natural substance ubiquitous in distribution and present in almost all species ranging from unicellular organisms to humans. In mammals, melatonin is synthesized not only in the pineal gland but also in many other parts of the body, including the eyes, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, skin and lymphocytes. Melatonin influences almost every cell and can be traced in membrane, cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and nuclear compartments of the cell. The decline in the production of melatonin with age has been suggested as one of the major contributors to immunosenescence and development of neoplastic diseases. Melatonin is a natural antioxidant with immunoenhancing properties. T-helper cells play an important role for protection against malignancy and melatonin has been shown to enhance T-helper cell response by releasing interleukin-2, interleukin-10 and interferon-γ. Melatonin is effective in suppressing neoplastic growth in a variety of tumors like melanoma, breast and prostate cancer, and ovarian and colorectal cancer. As an adjuvant therapy, melatonin can be beneficial in treating patients suffering from breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma or melanoma. In this paper, a brief review of recent patents on melatonin and cancer has also been presented. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Cardinali D.P.,University of Buenos Aires | Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Brzezinski A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Brown G.M.,University of Toronto | Brown G.M.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2012

Benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic drugs are widely used for the treatment of insomnia. Nevertheless, their adverse effects, such as next-day hangover, dependence and impairment of memory, make them unsuitable for long-term treatment. Melatonin has been used for improving sleep in patients with insomnia mainly because it does not cause hangover or show any addictive potential. However, there is a lack of consistency on its therapeutic value (partly because of its short half-life and the small quantities of melatonin employed). Thus, attention has been focused either on the development of more potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects or on the design of slow release melatonin preparations. The MT 1 and MT 2 melatonergic receptor ramelteon was effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency, as well as in reducing sleep latency, in insomnia patients. The melatonergic antidepressant agomelatine, displaying potent MT 1 and MT 2 melatonergic agonism and relatively weak serotonin 5HT 2C receptor antagonism, was found effective in the treatment of depressed patients. However, long-term safety studies are lacking for both melatonin agonists, particularly considering the pharmacological activity of their metabolites. In view of the higher binding affinities, longest half-life and relative higher potencies of the different melatonin agonists, studies using 2 or 3 mg/day of melatonin are probably unsuitable to give appropriate comparison of the effects of the natural compound. Hence, clinical trials employing melatonin doses in the range of 50-100 mg/day are warranted before the relative merits of the melatonin analogs versus melatonin can be settled. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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