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Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Cardinali D.P.,Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina | Srinivasan U.S.,MIOT Hospital | Kaur C.,National University of Singapore | And 4 more authors.
Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders | Year: 2011

Sleep disorders constitute major nonmotor features of Parkinson's disease (PD) that have a substantial effect on patients' quality of life and can be related to the progression of the neurodegenerative disease. They can also serve as preclinical markers for PD, as it is the case for rapid eye movement (REM)-associated sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Although the etiology of sleep disorders in PD remains undefined, the assessment of the components of the circadian system, including melatonin secretion, could give therapeutically valuable insight on their pathophysiopathology. Melatonin is a regulator of the sleep/wake cycle and also acts as an effective antioxidant and mitochondrial function protector. A reduction in the expression of melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors has been documented in the substantia nigra of PD patients. The efficacy of melatonin for preventing neuronal cell death and for ameliorating PD symptoms has been demonstrated in animal models of PD employing neurotoxins. A small number of controlled trials indicate that melatonin is useful in treating disturbed sleep in PD, in particular RBD. Whether melatonin and the recently developed melatonergic agents (ramelteon, tasimelteon, agomelatine) have therapeutic potential in PD is also discussed. © The Author(s), 2011. Reprints and permissions: http://www.sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Lauterbach E.C.,Mercer University | Ho K.Y.,National University of Singapore | Acuna-Castroviejo D.,University of Granada | And 2 more authors.
Current Neuropharmacology | Year: 2012

The intensity of pain sensation exhibits marked day and night variations. Since the intensity of pain perception is low during dark hours of the night when melatonin levels are high, this hormone has been implicated as one of the prime antinociceptive substances. A number of studies have examined the antinociceptive role of melatonin in acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain animal models. It has been demonstrated that melatonin exerts antinociceptive actions by acting at both spinal cord and supraspinal levels. The mechanism of antinociceptive actions of melatonin involves opioid, benzodiazepine, α 1- and α 2-adrenergic, serotonergic and cholinergic receptors. Most importantly however, the involvement of MT 1/MT 2 melatonergic receptors in the spinal cord has been well documented as an antinociceptive mechanism in a number of animal models of pain perception. Exogenous melatonin has been used effectively in the management of pain in medical conditions such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and migraine and cluster headache. Melatonin has been tried during surgical operating conditions and has been shown to enhance both preoperative and post-operative analgesia. The present review discusses the available evidence indicating that melatonin, acting through MT 1/MT 2 melatonin receptors, plays an important role in the pathophysiological mechanism of pain. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Cardinali D.P.,University of Buenos Aires | Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Brzezinski A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Brown G.M.,University of Toronto | Brown G.M.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2012

Benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic drugs are widely used for the treatment of insomnia. Nevertheless, their adverse effects, such as next-day hangover, dependence and impairment of memory, make them unsuitable for long-term treatment. Melatonin has been used for improving sleep in patients with insomnia mainly because it does not cause hangover or show any addictive potential. However, there is a lack of consistency on its therapeutic value (partly because of its short half-life and the small quantities of melatonin employed). Thus, attention has been focused either on the development of more potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects or on the design of slow release melatonin preparations. The MT 1 and MT 2 melatonergic receptor ramelteon was effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency, as well as in reducing sleep latency, in insomnia patients. The melatonergic antidepressant agomelatine, displaying potent MT 1 and MT 2 melatonergic agonism and relatively weak serotonin 5HT 2C receptor antagonism, was found effective in the treatment of depressed patients. However, long-term safety studies are lacking for both melatonin agonists, particularly considering the pharmacological activity of their metabolites. In view of the higher binding affinities, longest half-life and relative higher potencies of the different melatonin agonists, studies using 2 or 3 mg/day of melatonin are probably unsuitable to give appropriate comparison of the effects of the natural compound. Hence, clinical trials employing melatonin doses in the range of 50-100 mg/day are warranted before the relative merits of the melatonin analogs versus melatonin can be settled. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Srinivasan V.,Karpagam University | Singh J.,Civil Aviation Authority | Pandi-Perumal S.R.,Somnogen Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Advances in Therapy | Year: 2010

Traveling through several time zones results in a constellation of symptoms known as jet lag. These include reduced alertness, daytime fatigue, loss of appetite, reduced cognitive skills, and disruption of the sleep/wake cycle. In susceptible air travel passengers, jet lag may exacerbate affective illness and result in psychiatric morbidity. Dysregulation of circadian rhythms and melatonin secretion represent the common underlying factor in jet lag and other circadian disorders. Recent studies have established the effectiveness of strategically timed administration of melatonin and appropriate timed exposure to environmental schedules including light in counteracting the dysregulation (chronobiologic actions). With the introduction of melatonergic agonists such as ramelteon and tasimelteon, which have both a stronger affinity for MT 1 and MT2 melatonin receptors and a longer half-life, new therapeutic options now exist for treating the sleep disturbances associated with jet lag. The melatonin analogs are unique inasmuch as they can also enhance daytime alertness. The recently introduced melatonergic antidepressant agomelatine, which has established its supremacy over other antidepressants in having a significant chronobiologic activity, represents a good choice for treating depressive symptoms that are associated with jet lag. © 2010 Springer Healthcare.

Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Srinivasan V.,Karpagam University | Pandi-Perumal S.R.,Somnogen Inc | Brzezinsk A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 3 more authors.
Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Drug Discovery | Year: 2011

Melatonin is a natural substance ubiquitous in distribution and present in almost all species ranging from unicellular organisms to humans. In mammals, melatonin is synthesized not only in the pineal gland but also in many other parts of the body, including the eyes, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, skin and lymphocytes. Melatonin influences almost every cell and can be traced in membrane, cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and nuclear compartments of the cell. The decline in the production of melatonin with age has been suggested as one of the major contributors to immunosenescence and development of neoplastic diseases. Melatonin is a natural antioxidant with immunoenhancing properties. T-helper cells play an important role for protection against malignancy and melatonin has been shown to enhance T-helper cell response by releasing interleukin-2, interleukin-10 and interferon-γ. Melatonin is effective in suppressing neoplastic growth in a variety of tumors like melanoma, breast and prostate cancer, and ovarian and colorectal cancer. As an adjuvant therapy, melatonin can be beneficial in treating patients suffering from breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma or melanoma. In this paper, a brief review of recent patents on melatonin and cancer has also been presented. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Zakaria R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Othman Z.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Lauterbach E.C.,Mercer University | Acuna-Castroviejo D.,University of Granada
Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences | Year: 2012

Disruptions in sleep and sleep-wake cycle regulation have been identified as one of the main causes for the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. The search has been on for the identification of an ideal antidepressant that could improve both sleep disturbances and depressive symptomatology. Melatonin, the major hormone of the pineal gland, has been shown to improve sleep and is involved in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Identification of high concentrations of MT1 and MT2 melatonergic receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, the structure concerned with regulation of circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycles, has led to the development of melatonergic agonists with greater potency and longer durations of action. Agomelatine is one such melatonergic agonist that acts specifically on MT1/MT2 melatonergic receptors and at the same time exhibits 5-HT2C antagonism, a property that is utilized by current antidepressants that are in clinical use. Agomelatine has been shown to be effective in a number of animal models of depression. Clinical studies undertaken on patients with major depression, bipolar disorders, seasonal affective disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder have all shown that agomelatine is also very effective in ameliorating depressive symptoms and manifesting early onset of action with a good tolerability and safety profile. It improved sleep efficiency and also resynchronized the disrupted circadian rhythms. Hence, the melatonergic modulation by agomelatine is suggested as one of the mechanisms for its antidepressant effect. Agomelatine's action on dendritic neurogenesis in animal models of depression is also identified as yet another action. © 2012 American Psychiatric Association.

Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Pandi-Perumal S.R.,Somnogen Inc. | Spence D.W.,Canadian Sleep Institute | Kato H.,Tokyo University of Science | Cardinali D.P.,Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina
Journal of Critical Care | Year: 2010

Melatonin is a versatile molecule, synthesized not only in the pineal gland, but also in many other organs. Melatonin plays an important physiologic role in sleep and circadian rhythm regulation, immunoregulation, antioxidant and mitochondrial-protective functions, reproductive control, and regulation of mood. Melatonin has also been reported as effective in combating various bacterial and viral infections. Melatonin is an effective anti-inflammatory agent in various animal models of inflammation and sepsis, and its anti-inflammatory action has been attributed to inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with consequent reduction of peroxynitrite formation, to the stimulation of various antioxidant enzymes thus contributing to enhance the antioxidant defense, and to protective effects on mitochondrial function and in preventing apoptosis. In a number of animal models of septic shock, as well as in patients with septic disease, melatonin reportedly exerts beneficial effects to arrest cellular damage and multiorgan failure. The significance of these actions in septic shock and its potential usefulness in the treatment of multiorgan failure are discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | De Berardis D.,University of Teramo | Shillcutt S.D.,Mercer University | Brzezinski A.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2012

Introduction: Disturbances of circadian rhythms and sleep play an important role in various types of mood disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar depressive disorder (BPD) and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Malfunctioning of the SCNpinealmelatonin link has been suggested as the main cause for these disorders. As a rhythm-regulating factor and as a hormone involved in the regulation of sleep, melatonin is essential for the control of mood and behavior. Areas covered: Melatonin's involvement in various mood disorders is reviewed based on studies undertaken in patients with MDD, BPD and SAD. The chemistry and metabolism of the newly introduced antidepressant, agomelatine, a MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist and 5-HT2c antagonist in brain areas involved in mood regulation are also discussed. Its clinical role in mood regulation, agomelatine's efficacy, safety and tolerability are also reviewed. Expert opinion: Agomelatine, a melatonergic antidepressant with a rapid onset of action, has been shown effective in various types of mood disorders (e.g., MDD, BPD, SAD). Some studies find it superior to other common antidepressants (SSRIs, SNRIs) that are in clinical use today. Agomelatine's efficacy, good tolerability and safety profile suggest that it may become a preferred antidepressant in the near future. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Mohamed M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Kato H.,University of Tokyo
Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Drug Discovery | Year: 2012

Melatonin is a versatile molecule, synthesized not only by the pineal gland, but also in small amounts by many other organs like retina, gastrointestinal tract, thymus, bone marrow, lymphocytes etc. It plays an important role in various functions of the body like sleep and circadian rhythm regulation, immunoregulatory mechanism, free radical scavenger, antioxidant functions, oncostatic actions, control of reproductive functions, regulation of mood etc. Melatonin has also been found to be effective in combating various bacterial and viral infections. Its administration has been shown to be effective in controlling chlamydial infections, infections induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and also in many viral infections. Molecular mechanisms of anti microbial actions of melatonin have suggested to be due to effects on free radical formation, direct regulation of duplication of bacteria, depletion of intracellular substrates like iron etc. Besides, it is effective in sepsis as demonstrated in various animal models of septic shock. Melatonin's protective action against sepsis is suggested to be due to its antioxidant, immunomodulating and inhibitory actions against the production and activation of pro-inflammatory mediators. Use of melatonin has been beneficial in treating premature infants suffering from severe respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock. It has a potential therapeutic value in treating septic shock and associated multi organ failure in critically ill patients in addition to its antimicrobial and antiviral actions. The patents related to melatonin's use for treatment of bacterial infections and its use in clinical disorders are included. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Srinivasan V.,Sri Sathya Sai Medical Educational and Research Foundation | Ahmad A.H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Mohamed M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Zakaria R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Drug Discovery | Year: 2012

Malaria remains a global health problem affecting more than 515 million people all over the world including Malaysia. It is on the rise, even within unknown regions that previous to this were free of malaria. Although malaria eradication programs carried out by vector control programs are still effective, anti-malarial drugs are also used extensively for curtailing this disease. But resistance to the use of anti-malarial drugs is also increasing on a daily basis. With an increased understanding of mechanisms that cause growth, differentiation and development of malarial parasites in rodents and humans, new avenues of therapeutic approaches for controlling the growth, synchronization and development of malarial parasites are essential. Within this context, the recent discoveries related to IP 3 interconnected signalling pathways, the release of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores of Plasmodium, ubiquitin protease systems as a signalling pathway, and melatonin influencing the growth and differentiation of malarial parasites by its effects on these signalling pathways have opened new therapeutic avenues for arresting the growth and differentiation of malarial parasites. Indeed, the use of melatonin antagonist, luzindole, has inhibited the melatonin's effect on these signalling pathways and thereby has effectively reduced the growth and differentiation of malarial parasites. As Plasmodium has effective sensors which detect the nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations, suppression of plasma melatonin levels with the use of bright light during the night or by anti-melatonergic drugs and by using anti-kinase drugs will help in eradicating malaria on a global level. A number of patients have been admitted with regards to the control and management of malarial growth. Patents related to the discovery of serpentine receptors on Plasmodium, essential for modulating intra parasitic melatonin levels, procedures for effective delivery of bright light to suppress plasma melatonin levels and thereby arresting the growth and elimination of malarial parasites from the blood of the host are all cited in the paper. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the importance of melatonin acting as a cue for Plasmodium faciparum growth and to discuss the ways of curbing the effects of melatonin on Plasmodium growth and for arresting its life cycle, as a method of eliminating the parasite from the host. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

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