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Sivakumar S.,Sri Sankara Arts and Science College | Sivakumar S.,University of Madras | Niranjali Devaraj S.,University of Madras
Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders | Year: 2014

Background: Osteopontin (Eta, secreted sialoprotein 1, opn) is secreted from different cell types including cancer cells. Three splice variant forms namely osteopontin-a, osteopontin-b and osteopontin-c have been identified. The main astonishing feature is that osteopontin-c is found to be elevated in almost all types of cancer cells. This was the vital point to consider it for sequence analysis and structure predictions which provide ample chances for prognostic, therapeutic and preventive cancer research.Methods: Osteopontin-c gene sequence was determined from Breast Cancer sample and was translated to protein sequence. It was then analyzed using various software and web tools for binding pockets, docking and druggability analysis. Due to the lack of homological templates, tertiary structure was predicted using ab-initio method server - I-TASSER and was evaluated after refinement using web tools. Refined structure was compared with known bone sialoprotein electron microscopic structure and docked with CD44 for binding analysis and binding pockets were identified for drug designing.Results: Signal sequence of about sixteen amino acid residues was identified using signal sequence prediction servers. Due to the absence of known structures of similar proteins, three dimensional structure of osteopontin-c was predicted using I-TASSER server. The predicted structure was refined with the help of SUMMA server and was validated using SAVES server. Molecular dynamic analysis was carried out using GROMACS software. The final model was built and was used for docking with CD44. Druggable pockets were identified using pocket energies.Conclusions: The tertiary structure of osteopontin-c was predicted successfully using the ab-initio method and the predictions showed that osteopontin-c is of fibrous nature comparable to firbronectin. Docking studies showed the significant similarities of QSAET motif in the interaction of CD44 and osteopontins between the normal and splice variant forms of osteopontins and binding pockets analyses revealed several pockets which paved the way to the identification of a druggable pocket. © 2014 Sivakumar and Niranjali Devaraj; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Albino Wins J.,Holy Cross College | Murugan M.,Sri Sankara Arts and Science College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2010

The effect of textile effluent was studied with respect to germination and growth of black gram Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. In lower concentration the germination ratio and growth are relatively higher than the control, but gradual decrease in the germination of seeds, seedling growth with increase in effluent concentration was observed. The best germination and seedling growth was observed in 25%concentration with growth promoting effect, and significantly better than control. Beyond 25% effluent, root and shoot length decreased. Thus the textile mill effluent can be safely used for irrigation purposes with proper treatment and dilution at 25%.

Koodalingam A.,University of Madras | Koodalingam A.,Sri Sankara Arts and Science College | Mullainadhan P.,University of Madras | Arumugam M.,University of Madras
Acta Tropica | Year: 2013

We recently reported the presence of potent anti-mosquito activity in aqueous kernel extract of the soapnut, Sapindus emarginatus, and demonstrated its impact on marker enzymes in larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. As a sequel to these findings, the present study elucidates immunotoxicity of this extract with respect to hemocyte-mediated cellular immune responses in fourth instar larvae and pupae as well as cuticular melanization reaction in the larvae of A. aegypti. The exposure of these two developmental stages of the mosquito to the soapnut extract at a lethal threshold concentration neither affected hemocyte viability tested up to 3. h in vitro nor did it influence the hemocyte count. By contrast, exposure of the mosquito larvae and pupae to this extract significantly reduced the ability of their hemocytes to bind yeast cells, an important early event in the process of non-self recognition by immune cells. Consequently, the phagocytic activity of these hemocytes against yeast cells was also found to be adversely affected upon exposure of larvae and pupae to the extract. Besides, a perceptible initial delay in melanization reaction at the injured site of the cuticle in the extract-exposed larvae was observed. All these findings demonstrate, for the first time, the immuno-suppressive potential of a botanical biocide in the vector mosquito. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Koodalingam A.,Sri Sankara Arts and Science College | Mullainadhan P.,University of Madras | Rajalakshmi A.,Sri Sankara Arts and Science College | Deepalakshmi R.,Sri Sankara Arts and Science College | Ammu M.,Sri Sankara Arts and Science College
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2012

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based formulations possess potent insecticidal property, and they are being used in insect vector control programs all over the world. In this study, we examined the efficacy of a Bt-based product (Vectobar) on two developmental stages (fourth instar larvae and pupae) of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Vectobar at a concentration of 0.25. ppm was found to inflict 100% mortality of fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti within 24. h. By contrast, this Bt-based product tested up to 2. ppm was not effective against the pupae of A. aegypti. The systemic effect of Vectobar was further assessed in the fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti by measuring the levels of total proteins and activity of two important marker enzymes: esterases and phosphatases. Exposure of the larvae to Vectobar at a lethal threshold concentration (0.05. ppm) significantly decreased the level of total protein (34%) as well as the activities of acetylcholinesterase (36%), α-carboxylesterase (34%) and alkaline phosphatase (49%). On the other hand, 40% increase in the level of acid phosphatase activity was recorded in these larvae. The Vectobar did not affect the level of β-carboxylesterase activity in the larvae of A. aegypti. This investigation clearly demonstrates differential modulation in the activities of esterases and phosphatases in Vectobar exposed larvae of A. aegypti. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Sarala V.,Sri Sankara Arts and Science College | Radhakrishnan M.,Sri Sankara Arts and Science College | Balagurunathan R.,Periyar University
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2011

Biofouling bacteria were isolated from fouling sample collected from boat and other marine structures around Parangipettai coastal area (lat.11° 29′N; long.79° 46′E) and its population was estimated as 8.15×106 CFU/gram. Based on the result of adherence study, five different biofouling bacterial isolates were selected, characterized and identified as Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp., Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Serratia sp. Crude bioactive metabolites from 15 plant samples (leaves) were collected and were extracted using methanol and tested against biofouling bacteria by disc diffusion method in which nine extracts showed inhibition against biofouling bacteria. Andrographis paniculata was selected for further isolation of antifouling compound, as it showed maximum of 13-21mm zone of inhibition. Of the various solvents tested for extraction methanol extract showed best activity followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and aqueous extract. Antifouling compound was separated by TLC. The active compound separated in TLC was detected by bioautography in which the first spot (Rf value - 0.96) showed antifouling activity. Based on the results of phytochemical analysis the active compound was identified as terpenoids. The partially purified fraction was tested for biofouling inhibition and prevention by cover glass method, and wooden stick method. In both the studies the partially purified fraction showed good activity. Further investigation of active compound from A. paniculata will leads to the development of economically cheaper and ecofriendly antifouling compounds.

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