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Srīnagar, India

Sarwat M.,Amity University | Hashem A.,Egyptian Plant Pathology Research Institute | Hashem A.,King Saud University | Ahanger M.A.,Jiwaji University | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science

Present work was carried out to investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in mitigating salinity-induced alterations in Brassica juncea L. Exposure to NaCl stress altered the morphological, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites and phytohormones in the mustard seedlings. The growth and biomass yield, leaf water content, and total chlorophyll content were decreased with NaCl stress. However, AMF-inoculated plants exhibited enhanced shoot and root length, elevated relative water content, enhanced chlorophyll content, and ultimately biomass yield. Lipid peroxidation and proline content were increased by 54.53 and 63.47%, respectively with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in proline content and decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed in NaCl-treated plants inoculated with AMF. The antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione were increased by 48.35, 54.86, 43.85, and 44.44%, respectively, with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in these antioxidants has been observed in AMF-colonized plants indicating the alleviating role of AMF to salinity stress through antioxidant modulation. The total phenol, flavonoids, and phytohormones increase with NaCl treatment. However, NaCl-treated plants colonized with AMF showed further increase in the above parameters except ABA, which was reduced with NaCl+AMF treatment over the plants treated with NaCl alone. Our results demonstrated that NaCl caused negative effect on B. juncea seedlings; however, colonization with AMF enhances the NaCl tolerance by reforming the physio- biochemical attributes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and production of secondary metabolites and phytohormones. © 2016 Sarwat, Hashem, Ahanger, Abd_Allah, Alqarawi, Alyemeni, Ahmad and Gucel. Source

Malik A.Y.,Sri Pratap College | Mudasir A.L.I.,University Of Kashmir
Journal of Industrial Pollution Control

Serving as ecological indicators of the lake ecosystem health, the macrozoobenthos fauna were studied, keeping in view the significant role played by these organisms in the assessment process. The article deals with the species composition and population density of macrozoobenthic community in the Bod-Dai basin of Dal lake, Kashmir as observed during January to September 2004. The macrozoobenthos was comprised of 9 species of benthic invertebrates belonging to 3 major phyla viz., annelida, arthopoda and mollusca. Annelids were more prevalent with the most dominant ones being Limnodrills sp. (oligochaeta) and Chironomus sp. (insecta). © EM International Printed in India. All rights reserved. Source

Rawat M.,Forest Research Institute | Vasistha H.B.,Forest Research Institute | Manhas R.K.,Sri Pratap College | Negi M.,Forest Research Institute
Tropical Ecology

Sacred forests are a new frontier for interdisciplinary research and are relevant for biodiversity conservation. However, several sacred forests are experiencing failure of legal protection in guaranteeing their integrity and conservation. To bridge the gap between the needs of local people and to safeguard the health of these sacred places, immediate steps are called for. The present study was conducted in Kunjapuri Siddhapeeth, which is one of the 52 Siddhapeeths of India. A total of 239 plant species belonging to 78 families and 207 genera were collected from the study area. Out of these, nine species are considered threatened and three species vulnerable. Presently, the health of this sacred forest is deteriorating under constant anthropogenic pressures. These disturbances are also a threat for various rare, vulnerable and threatened plants. These forests are maintained and managed by the forest department and the locals are not co-operating. Therefore, the government should either promote community-based conservation of biodiversity in these forests or their administration should be handed over to temple authorities. © International Society for Tropical Ecology. Source

Ahmad P.,Sri Pratap College | Hashem A.,King Saud University | Hashem A.,Egyptian Plant Pathology Research Institute | Abd-Allah E.F.,King Saud University | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science

Salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. In the present study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in Brassica juncea and the protective role of Trichoderma harzianum (TH) was investigated. Salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. Higher concentration of NaCl (200 mM) decreased the plant height by 33.7%, root length by 29.7% and plant dry weight (DW) by 34.5%. On the other hand, supplementation of TH to NaCl treated mustard seedlings showed elevation by 13.8, 11.8, and 16.7% in shoot, root length and plant DW respectively as compared to plants treated with NaCl (200 mM) alone. Oil content was drastically affected by NaCl treatment; however, TH added plants showed enhanced oil percentage from 19.4 to 23.4% in the present study. NaCl also degenerate the pigment content and the maximum drop of 52.0% was recorded in Chl. ‘a’. Enhanced pigment content was observed by the application of TH to NaCl treated plants. Proline content showed increase by NaCl stress and maximum accumulation of 59.12% was recorded at 200 mM NaCl. Further enhancement to 70.37% in proline content was recorded by supplementation of TH. NaCl stress (200 mM) affirms the increase in H2O2 by 69.5% and MDA by 36.5%, but reduction in the accumulation is recorded by addition of TH to mustard seedlings. 200 mM NaCl elevated SOD, POD, APX, GR, GST, GPX, GSH, and GSSG in the present study. Further enhancement was observed by the application of TH to the NaCl fed seedlings. NaCl stress suppresses the uptake of important elements in both roots and shoots, however, addition of TH restored the elemental uptake in the present study. Mustard seedlings treated with NaCl and TH showed restricted Na uptake as compared to seedlings treated with NaCl alone. In conclusion, TH proved to be very beneficial in imparting resistance to the mustard plants against NaCl stress through improved uptake of essential elements, modulation of osmolytes and antioxidants. © 2015, (publisher). All rights reserved. Source

Ahmad P.,King Saud University | Ahmad P.,Sri Pratap College | Abdel Latef A.A.,South Valley University | Abdel Latef A.A.,Taif University | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science

This work examined the role of exogenously applied calcium (Ca; 50 mM) and potassium (K; 10 mM) (alone and in combination) in alleviating the negative effects of cadmium (Cd; 200 µM) on growth, biochemical attributes, secondary metabolites and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Cd stress significantly decreased the length and weight (fresh and dry) of shoot and root and yield attributes in terms of number of pods and seed yield (vs. control). Exhibition of decreases in chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and total Chl was also observed with Cd-exposure when compared to control. However, Cd-exposure led to an increase in the content of carotenoids. In contrast, the exogenous application of Ca and K individually as well as in combination minimized the extent of Cd-impact on previous traits. C. arietinum seedlings subjected to Cd treatment exhibited increased contents of organic solute (proline, Pro) and total protein; whereas, Ca and K-supplementation further enhanced the Pro and total protein content. Additionally, compared to control, Cd-exposure also caused elevation in the contents of oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxidase, H2O2; malondialdehyde, MDA) and in the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR). Ca, K, and Ca + K supplementation caused further enhancements in the activity of these enzymes but significantly decreased contents of H2O2 and MDA, also that of Cd accumulation in shoot and root. The contents of total phenol, flavonoid and mineral elements (S, Mn, Mg, Ca and K) that were also suppressed in Cd stressed plants in both shoot and root were restored to appreciable levels with Ca- and K-supplementation. However, the combination of Ca + K supplementation was more effective in bringing the positive response as compared to individual effect of Ca and K on Cd-exposed C. arietinum. Overall, this investigation suggests that application of Ca and/or K can efficiently minimize Cd-toxicity and eventually improve health and yield in C. arietinum by the cumulative outcome of the enhanced contents of organic solute, secondary metabolites, mineral elements, and activity of antioxidant defense enzymes. © 2016 Ahmad, Abdel Latef, Abd_Allah, Hashem, Sarwat, Anjum and Gucel. Source

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